Open Access

Late Holocene uplift of the Izu Islands on the northern Zenisu Ridge off Central Japan

  • Akihisa Kitamura1, 2Email author,
  • Takafumi Imai1,
  • Yuta Mitsui1, 2,
  • Mami Ito1,
  • Yosuke Miyairi3,
  • Yusuke Yokoyama3 and
  • Yuki Tokuda4
Progress in Earth and Planetary Science20174:30

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645-017-0146-5

Received: 28 December 2016

Accepted: 3 October 2017

Published: 18 October 2017

Abstract

To clarify the Holocene uplift history of the Izu Islands, Japan, we analyze the elevations and 14C ages of emerged sessile assemblages measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) on the islands of Niijima, Jinaijima, Shikinejima, and Kouzushima, on the northern Zenisu Ridge. The results suggest that uplift events took place after AD 1950 (uplift event 1), during AD 786–1891 (uplift event 2), during AD 600–1165 (uplift event 3), and during AD 161–686 (uplift event 4), although uplift events 3 and 4 are identified only at Kouzushima. The minimum amount of uplift was estimated to be 0.4–0.9 m in uplift event 1, 2.4–2.7 m in uplift event 2, 3.6 m in uplift event 3, and 3.3–8.1 m in uplift event 4. These events could have been caused by volcanic activity or strong earthquakes. There also remains the possibility that uplift event 2 was caused by the AD 1498 Meio earthquake; in contrast to the previous interpretation, the ages of uplift events are significantly older than the earthquake, based on conventional (non-AMS) methods.

Keywords

Emerged marine sessile assemblage 14C dateHoloceneNiijimaShikinejimaKouzushima

Introduction

Fukutomi (1935, 1938) discovered emerged sessile assemblages on Shikinejima and Jinaijima within the Izu Islands and in southern Izu Peninsula, Central Japan (Figs. 1 and 2). He suggested that these assemblages provided evidence of coseismic uplift associated with the AD 1703 great Kanto (Genroku) earthquake (Fig. 1), although the ages of the assemblages were not obtained. On the other hand, Hatori (1975) and Aida (1981) interpreted the same assemblages as evidence of the AD 1498 Meio earthquake (M 8.2–8.4) (Fig. 1). These authors suggested that the tsunami believed to have been associated with the Meio earthquake affected coastal regions from Kii Peninsula to Boso Peninsula, Central Japan (Fig. 1b) and hypothesized that the rupture area included the western and eastern Tōnankai segments (C and D in Fig. 1a, respectively) and the area south of Izu Peninsula.
Fig. 1

a Spatio-temporal distribution of great earthquakes along the Nankai, Suruga, and Sagami troughs (Ando 1975; Ishibashi and Satake 1998; Shishikura 2014). Individual fault segments are labeled A–E and Z; 1 indicates the Sagami Bay segment and 2 denotes the South Boso segment. The boundary of the Izu microplate (IM) is after Nishimura et al. (2007). b Distribution of inundation heights for the Meio earthquake, as determined by Hatori (1975). The hatched area indicates the source area of the Meio earthquake (Hatori 1975). c Map of the study area and Zenisu Ridge. The submarine fault between Shimoda and Mikomotojima is after Kitamura et al. (2015)

Fig. 2

Locality map of field sites on Shimoda, Niijima, Jinaijima, Shikinejima, and Kouzushima, showing sampling sites investigated by Ota et al. (1983, 1986). The base map is from the 1:200,000 topographic maps “Shimoda,” “Mikomojima,” “Niijima,” and “Kouzushima” published by the Geospatial Authority of Japan. Red dots indicate GPS stations

Ota et al. (1983, 1986) determined the 14C ages of emerged assemblages from the southern coast of Izu Peninsula and Shikinejima (Fig. 2; Table 1), and demonstrated that the ages obtained were inconsistent with the hypotheses of Fukutomi (1935, 1938), Hatori (1975), and Aida (1981). However, these ages were not calibrated. Kitamura et al. (2016) examined the faunal compositions and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages of emerged sessile assemblages in the southern part of Izu Peninsula and concluded that coseismic uplift occurred in the periods 1256–950 BC, 1000–1270 AD, 1430–1660 AD, and 1506–1815 AD. Kitamura et al. (2015) found no evidence of Holocene coseismic uplift at Mikomotojima, a small island located 10 km off the coast of Shimoda and inferred that the source fault for the uplift events was a reverse fault located ~ 3 km offshore from southern Izu Peninsula (Fig. 1c). On the other hand, AMS 14C ages have yet to be determined for the emerged sessile assemblages on Shikinejima. In addition, we know of no published studies of emerged sessile assemblages on Niijima or Kouzushima. Thus, the present study examines Holocene crustal movements on the islands of Shikinejima, Niijima, and Kouzushima, using elevation data and AMS 14C dating of emerged marine sessile assemblages.
Table 1

14C dates reported by Ota et al. (1983, 1986). Area and sampling points are shown in Fig. 2

Area/sampling points

Materials

14C age (years BP)

Sample height (m)

Ohama

Chthamalus sp.

2650 ± 80

2.3–2.7

Ohama

Saccostrea echinata

2830 ± 90

2.3–2.7

Ohama

Saccostrea echinata

670 ± 75

1.1

Ohama

Saccostrea echinata

645 ± 80

0.9

Iritahama

Tetraclitella chinensi

950 ± 90

1.45–2.15

Kakizaki

Saccostrea echinata

1280 ± 75

1.6

Kakizaki

Saccostrea echinata

1540 ± 65

1.6

Shikinejima 1

Tetraclitella chinensi

1980 ± 130

3.2–3.6

Shikinejima 1

Megabalanus rosa

1830 ± 130

3.0–3.1

Shikinejima 1

Tetraclitella chinensi

1350 ± 100

2.6

Shikinejima 1

Saccostrea kegaki

2540 ± 290

2.6

Shikinejima 2

Tetraclita japonica

1010 ± 300

4.2

Shikinejima 3

Tetraclitella chinensi

1530 ± 100

3.9–5.1

Study area

Niijima, Jinaijima, Shikinejima, and Kouzushima are located along the northern part of the Zenisu Ridge on the northern Philippine Sea Plate (Fig. 1). The Zenisu Ridge is a topographic high composed of oceanic crust (Le Pichon et al. 1987; Chamot-Rooke and Le Pichon 1989; Ishihara 1989; Lallemant et al. 1989; Nakanishi et al. 1994; Fig. 1). Using regional kinematic models, Mazzotti et al. (1999, 2001) examined the movement of crustal blocks around Central Japan and identified three blocks: the Philippine Sea Plate, Central Japan, and the Zenisu–West Izu block. Sagiya (1999) and Nishimura et al. (2007) refer to the Zenisu–West Izu block as the Izu microplate (Fig. 1). A subduction thrust occurs offshore from the Tokai area along the southern edge of the microplate (Nakanishi et al. 1994). The eastern boundary of the microplate consists of a sinistral strike-slip fault zone (Mazzotti et al. 1999, 2001) that is located less than 10 km west of Shikinejima (Nishimura et al. 2007).

Niijima, Jinaijima, Shikinejima, and Kouzushima consist mainly of Quaternary volcanic rocks (Isshiki 1987). Historical documents reveal that Mukaiyama volcano on Niijima and Tenjosan volcano on Kouzushima (Fig. 2) erupted in AD 886 and AD 838, respectively (Isshiki 1987). Togashi (1984) suggested that volcanic activity also occurred about 230 years before the AD 838 Kouzushima eruption.

Earthquakes in AD 1890 (M 6.8) and 1936 (M 6.3) damaged Shikinejima and Niijima, respectively (Hagiwara and Omote 1936; Honda 1938; Hamada 2001), with epicenters located approximately 14 km and 1 km south of Niijima Island, respectively (Hamada 2001; Fig. 3). The focal mechanisms of both earthquakes (Honda 1938) indicate strike-slip motion (Fig. 3d).
Fig. 3

a, b Epicentral locations of significant earthquakes in the study area (Hamada 2001). c Epicentral locations of significant earthquakes in the study area based on the hypocenter catalog of the Japan Meteorological Agency. d P wave first motions of the 27 December 1936 earthquake (Honda, 1938) with possible slip directions indicated by black arrows

Recent crustal movements in the study area have been inferred from tide gauge and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Tide-gauge data indicate about 0.9 m of uplift of Kouzushima Island between 1990 and 2014 (Coastal Movements Data Center, 2016; Fig. 4a). GPS time-series data of the F3 solution (Nakagawa et al. 2009) of GEONET, provided by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, reveal that Shikinejima and Niijima are being uplifted at a mean rate of 1.0 cm/year since 1998 (Fig. 4b). This uplift is related to a pressure source located beneath northeastern Kouzushima (Kimata et al. 2000) and dike intrusion associated with the AD 2000 eruption of Miyakejima volcano, southeast of Kouzushima (Fig. 2) (Murakami et al. 2001; Nishimura et al. 2001; Yamaoka et al. 2005).
Fig. 4

a Mean relative sea-level changes since 1964 measured by tide gauges at Minami Izu and Kouzushima (Coastal Movements Data Center, 2016). b Relative vertical displacement at GPS stations during the period 1 January 1998 and 5 November 2016 at Niijima, Shikinejima, and Kouzushima (GEONET F3 solution based on Nakagawa et al. (2009))

The coastlines in the study area are characterized by a wave-dominated and microtidal regime, with a maximum tidal range of 1.6 m during spring tides. In this study, the intertidal zone ranges between − 0.8 and 0.8 m above mean sea level (amsl).

Methods/Experimental

This study examines emerged marine sessile assemblages at one site on Niijima, one site on Jinaijima, six sites on Shikinejima, and four sites on Kouzushima (Fig. 2). At each site, we collected several samples of well-preserved barnacles, bivalves, Serpulidae, and corals. Before the specimens were identified, each was cleaned with a micro-knife and organic matter was removed using hydrochloric acid. The coral samples were analyzed by X-ray photography and X-ray diffraction. Radiocarbon dating was performed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Tokyo, Japan (Yokoyama et al. 2016). Radiocarbon ages were then translated into calendar time scales using the program OxCal 4.3 (Bronk Ramsey 1995; Bronk Ramsey and Lee 2013), based on comparisons with Marine 13 data (Reimer et al. 2013). A local correction ofΔR = 109 ± 60 calculated for Shimoda, 42 km northwest of Shikinejima (Yoneda et al. 2000), was applied to all data. We also observed the upper limit of living hermatypic coral, Saccostrea kegaki and Crassostrea gigas oysters, Tetraclitella chinensis barnacles, and Pomatoleios kraussii tubeworms where we collected the emerged specimens. Since these species occur in high densities, reliable data were easily obtained.

Results

Site descriptions and 14C dating

Niijima

At site N1, we collected in situ specimens of abraded Saccostrea kegaki at 0.0–0.7 m amsl and in situ samples of fresh Crassostrea gigas at 0.3–0.9 m amsl (Figs. 2 and 5). We observed the burial of these specimens by sand on 22 September 2014. Although two specimens of S. kegaki fall within the age range of AD 1816 to present, all other samples represent modern specimens (Table 2). The upper limit of living S. kegaki is + 0.4 m amsl, while living specimens of C. gigas could not be found.
Fig. 5

Photographs of a the study area at site N1 in Niijima, b the sampling point at which S. kegaki was collected, c the sampling point at which C. gigas was collected, d S. kegaki. (arrows indicate individual examples), and e C. gigas (arrows indicate individual examples)

Table 2

Results of 14C dating in the present study

Sample name

Locality

Site

Laboratory number (YAUT-)

Coordinates (lat/long)

Height (m)

Upper-growth limit (m)

Materials

Conventional 14C age (years BP)

Calibrated age (2σ)

Groups

Total minimum uplift (m)

N1

Niijima

N1

14905

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.7

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

407 ± 32

Cal AD 1816–1950

A

0.3 (− 0.1)

N2

Niijima

N1

14906

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.6

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

294 ± 32

Cal AD 1847–1950

A

0.2 (− 0.2)

N3

Niijima

N1

14907

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.6

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

− 70 ± 37

Cal AD 1885–1950

A

0.2 (− 0.3)

N4

Niijima

N1

14908

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.5

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

− 387 ± 34

Modern

A

0.1 (− 0.3)

N5

Niijima

N1

14909

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.3

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

− 686 ± 44

Modern

A

− 0.1 (− 0.5)

N6

Niijima

N1

14910

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.3

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

− 687 ± 46

Modern

A

− 0.1 (− 0.5)

N7

Niijima

N1

14911

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.2

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

− 595 ± 34

Modern

A

− 0.2 (− 0.6)

N8

Niijima

N1

14912

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.1

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

− 720 ± 48

Modern

A

− 0.3 (− 0.7)

N9

Niijima

N1

14913

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.1

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

− 789 ± 54

Modern

A

− 0.3 (− 0.7)

N10

Niijima

N1

14917

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.1

0.4 (0.8)

Saccostrea kegaki

− 815 ± 56

Modern

A

− 0.3 (− 0.7)

N11

Niijima

N1

14918

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.9

0.4 (0.8)

Crassostrea gigas

− 1157 ± 64

Modern

A

0.5 (0.1)

N12

Niijima

N1

14919

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.9

0.4 (0.8)

Crassostrea gigas

− 1088 ± 42

Modern

A

0.5 (0.1)

N13

Niijima

N1

14920

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.9

0.4 (0.8)

Crassostrea gigas

− 1151 ± 41

Modern

A

0.5 (0.1)

N14

Niijima

N1

14921

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.9

0.4 (0.8)

Crassostrea gigas

− 1171 ± 46

Modern

A

0.5 (0.1)

N15

Niijima

N1

14922

34.21499° 139.14331°

0.7

0.4 (0.8)

Crassostrea gigas

− 1209 ± 57

Modern

A

0.3 (− 0.1)

J11

Jinaijima

J1

18537

34.22027° 139.13431°

0.6

0.2

Pomatoleios kraussii

482 ± 43

Cal AD 1724–1950

A

0.4

J12

Jinaijima

J1

18538

34.22027° 139.13431°

0.6

0.2

Pomatoleios kraussii

459 ± 35

Cal AD 1726–1950

A

0.4

TMR1

Shikinejima

S1

9905

34.20119° 139.12376°

4

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1243 ± 29

Cal AD 1139–1391

B

3.2

TMR2

Shikinejima

S1

14923

34.20119° 139.12376°

4

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

955 ± 64

Cal AD 1335–1650

B

3.2

TMR3

Shikinejima

S1

9906

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.8

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1270 ± 35

Cal AD 1085–1333

B

3

TMR4

Shikinejima

S1

14924

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.8

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1006 ± 60

Cal AD 1302–1615

B

3

TMR5

Shikinejima

S1

9907

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.6

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

859 ± 43

Cal AD 1460–1670

B

2.8

TMR6

Shikinejima

S1

14925

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.6

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1265 ± 37

Cal AD 1069–1380

B

2.8

TMR7

Shikinejima

S1

9908

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.4

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1051 ± 41

Cal AD 1308–1487

B

2.6

TMR8

Shikinejima

S1

14926

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.4

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

837 ± 70

Cal AD 1431–1804

B

2.6

TMR9

Shikinejima

S1

9909

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.2

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

844 ± 34

Cal AD 1468–1678

B

2.4

TMR10

Shikinejima

S1

14930

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.2

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1319 ± 36

Cal AD 1048–1305

B

2.4

TMR11

Shikinejima

S1

9910

34.20119° 139.12376°

3

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

904 ± 40

Cal AD 1436–1651

B

2.2

TMR12

Shikinejima

S1

14931

34.20119° 139.12376°

3

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1117 ± 47

Cal AD 1245–1469

B

2.2

TMR13

Shikinejima

S1

9911

34.20119° 139.12376°

2.7

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

721 ± 34

Cal AD 1539–1872

B

1.9

TMR14

Shikinejima

S1

14932

34.20119° 139.12376°

2.7

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

774 ± 43

Cal AD 1483–1821

B

1.9

TMR15

Shikinejima

S1

9912

34.20119° 139.12376°

2.7

0.4

Cardita leana

1070 ± 41

Cal AD 1300–1473

B

2.3

TMR16

Shikinejima

S1

14933

34.20119° 139.12376°

2.7

0.4

Cardita leana

1378 ± 38

Cal AD 1006–1280

B

2.3

OUR22

Shikinejima

S2

9917

34.19534° 139.12305°

3

0.4

Cardita leana

1399 ± 35

Cal AD 1002–1252

B

2.6

OUR31

Shikinejima

S3

9918

34.19486° 139.12267°

2.3

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1049 ± 36

Cal AD 1309–1489

B

1.5

OUR32

Shikinejima

S3

9919

34.19486° 139.12267°

2.3

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1152 ± 46

Cal AD 1216–1452

B

1.5

NNU41

Shikinejima

S4

9920

34.19420° 139.12238°

− 0.1

− 0.5

Cyphastrea serailia

375 ± 40

Cal AD 1842–1950

A

0.4

NNU42

Shikinejima

S4

9921

34.19420° 139.12238°

− 0.1

− 0.5

Cyphastrea serailia

215 ± 34

Cal AD 1875–1950

A

0.4

NNU43

Shikinejima

S4

9922

34.19420° 139.12238°

− 0.1

− 0.5

Cyphastrea serailia

302 ± 37

Cal AD 1857–1950

A

0.4

NNU51

Shikinejima

S5

9923

34.19416° 139.12198°

1.4

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

275 ± 29

Cal AD 1862–1950

A

0.6

NNU51

Shikinejima

S5

14936

34.19416° 139.12198°

1.4

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

539 ± 41

Cal AD 1720–1950

A

0.6

ISZ61

Shikinejima

S6

9924

34.19196° 139.13216°

3.7

0.4

Cardita leana

1260 ± 38

Cal AD 1090–1346

B

3.3

K111

Kozujima

K1

18504

34.14110° 139.08083°

0.54

0.4

Tetraclita sp.

− 796 ± 41

modern

A

0.14

K112

Kozujima

K1

18505

34.14110° 139.08083°

0.64

0.8

Serpulidae sp.

439 ± 29

Cal AD 1766–1950

A

− 0.16

K113

Kozujima

K1

18506

34.14110° 139.08083°

0.99

0.4

Tetraclita sp.

472 ± 27

Cal AD 1727–1950

A

0.59

K114

Kozujima

K1

18507

34.14110° 139.08083°

1.36

0.4

Tetraclita sp.

486 ± 39

Cal AD 1724–1950

A

0.96

K121

Kozujima

K1

18509

34.14110° 139.08083°

2.42

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1227 ± 34

Cal AD 1140–1410

B

1.62

K122

Kozujima

K1

18511

34.14110° 139.08083°

2.98

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1280 ± 30

Cal AD 1066–1331

B

2.18

K123

Kozujima

K1

18512

34.14110° 139.08083°

3.28

0

Tubastraea coccinea

1414 ± 28

Cal AD 975–1255

B

3.28

K131

Kozujima

K1

18513

34.14110° 139.08083°

4.36

0.8

Rhizotrochus typus

1626 ± 45

Cal AD 716–1031

C

3.56

K132

Kozujima

K1

18514

34.14110° 139.08083°

4.91

0.8

Rhizotrochus typus

1663 ± 57

Cal AD 682–1015

C

4.11

K133

Kozujima

K1

18517

34.14110° 139.08083°

5.58

0.8

Rhizotrochus typus

1594 ± 42

Cal AD 735–1053

C

4.78

K141

Kozujima

K1

18518

34.14110° 139.08083°

6.2

0.8

Rhizotrochus sp.

1725 ± 42

Cal AD 647–956

C

5.4

K142

Kozujima

K1

18519

34.14110° 139.08083°

6.91

0.8

Rhizotrochus typus

1663 ± 33

Cal AD 696–993

C

6.11

K143

Kozujima

K1

18521

34.14110° 139.08083°

6.91

0

Tubastraea coccinea

1568 ± 29

Cal AD 775–1073

C

6.91

K1441

Kozujima

K1

18523

34.14110° 139.08083°

6.61

0.8

Rhizotrochus typus

1503 ± 32

Cal AD 843–1173

C

5.81

K1442

Kozujima

K1

22004

34.14110° 139.08083°

6.61

0

Chama iostoma

1639 ± 33

Cal AD 715–1015

C

6.61

K145

Kozujima

K1

18524

34.14110° 139.08083°

6.51

0.8

Rhizotrochus typus

1537 ± 51

Cal AD 786–1154

C

5.71

K146

Kozujima

K1

18525

34.14110° 139.08083°

6.51

0

Tubastraea coccinea

1779 ± 67

Cal AD 550–940

C

6.51

K211

Kozujima

K2

18526

34.13131° 139.07457°

9.43

0

Tetraclita sp.

1931 ± 33

Cal AD 426–700

D

9.43

K212

Kozujima

K2

22005

34.13131° 139.07457°

9.43

0.4

Cardita leana

2085 ± 29

Cal AD 250–585

D

9.03

K213

Kozujima

K2

22006

34.13131° 139.07457°

9.43

0.8

Lithophaga curta

2035 ± 36

Cal AD 305–641

D

8.63

K214

Kozujima

K2

22007

34.13131° 139.07457°

9.43

0

Tetraclita sp.

1982 ± 25

Cal AD 395–665

D

9.43

K215

Kozujima

K2

22009

34.13131° 139.07457°

9.43

− 0.4

Vermetus tokyoensis

2107 ± 35

Cal AD 218–572

D

9.83

K22

Kozujima

K2

18527

34.13131° 139.07457°

11.43

0.4

Cardita leana

2156 ± 47

Cal AD 142–528

D

11.03

K31

Kozujima

K3

18531

34.12475° 139.07517°

2.09

0.8

Serpulidae sp.

1301 ± 35

Cal AD 1056–1316

B

1.29

K321

Kozujima

K3

18532

34.12475° 139.07517°

2.45

0.4

Cardita leana

1789 ± 40

Cal AD 580–885

C

2.05

K322

Kozujima

K3

22011

34.12475° 139.07517°

2.45

− 0.4

Vermetus tokyoensis

1617 ± 39

Cal AD 726–1034

C

2.85

K323

Kozujima

K3

22012

34.12475° 139.07517°

2.45

0.8

Lithophaga curta

1553 ± 31

Cal AD 783–1100

C

1.65

K33

Kozujima

K3

22013

34.12475° 139.07517°

1.22

0.4

Tetraclita sp.

480 ± 32

Cal AD 1725–1950

A

0.82

K411

Kozujima

K4

18534

34.12462° 139.07516°

0.02

0.8

Serpulidae sp.

− 816 ± 34

Modern

A

− 0.78

K4121

Kozujima

K4

18536

34.12462° 139.07516°

0.32

0.8

Serpulidae sp.

− 923 ± 46

Modern

A

− 0.48

K4122

Kozujima

K4

22014

34.12462° 139.07516°

0.32

0.4

Tetraclita sp.

− 1121 ± 23

Modern

A

0.32

K413

Kozujima

K4

18636

34.12462° 139.07516°

0.62

0.8

Dendropoma planorbis

530 ± 31

Cal AD 1723–1950

A

− 0.18

K421

Kozujima

K4

18637

34.12462° 139.07516°

2.02

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensis

1037 ± 28

Cal AD 1306–1511

B

1.22

K422

Kozujima

K4

18638

34.12462° 139.07516°

3.92

0.8

Serpulidae sp.

1755 ± 28

Cal AD 626–901

C

3.12

GaK-9718*

Shikinejima

1 (S1)

GaK-9718

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.2–3.6

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensi

1980 ± 130

  

2.4–2.8

GaK-9717*

Shikinejima

1 (S1)

GaK-9717

34.20119° 139.12376°

3.0–3.1

0.8

Megabalanus rosa

1830 ± 130

  

2.2–2.3

GaK-9720*

Shikinejima

1 (S1)

GaK-9720

34.20119° 139.12376°

2.6

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensi

1350 ± 100

  

1.8

GaK-9721*

Shikinejima

1 (S1)

GaK-9721

34.20119° 139.12376°

2.6

0.8

Saccostrea kegaki

2540 ± 290

  

1.8

GaK-9719*

Shikinejima

2

GaK-9719

34.19165° 139.13214°

4.2

0.8

Tetraclita japonica

1010 ± 300

  

3.4

GaK-9722*

Shikinejima

3

GaK-9722

34.19184° 139.13223°

3.9–5.1

0.8

Tetraclitella chinensi

1530 ± 100

  

3.1–4.3

*Ota et al. (1983)

Jinaijima

Jinaijima is a small island located 2 km west of Niijima Island (Fig. 2). We collected encrusting masses of Pomatoleios kraussii tubeworms at 0.6 m amsl at site J1, which is located on bedrock on the east side of the Island (Figs. 2 and 6). The encrusting masses are up to 4 cm thick and lack any observable layered structure. 14C dating of the surface (J11) and innermost part (J12) of the masses yields ranges of AD 1724 to present and AD 1727 to present, respectively (Table 2). Encrusting masses of living P. kraussii could not be found.
Fig. 6

Photographs of a site J1 on Jinaijima and b encrusting masses of P. kraussii

Shikinejima

Site S1 is a cave located in a cliff south of Tomari Port (Figs. 2 and 7a). The cave is 1 m wide, 10 m high, and 4 m long. Inside the cave, we collected many well-preserved individual samples of the barnacle Tetraclitella chinensis (Fig. 7b) and in situ samples of the bivalve Cardita leana at elevations of 2.6–4.0 m amsl (Fig. 7c). 14C dates of all specimens range from AD 1006 to 1891 (Table 2). Ota et al. (1983) previously collected uplifted sessile assemblages from this site and obtained non-calibrated 14C ages of 1980 ± 130 years BP and 1350 ± 100 years BP for specimens found at elevations of 3.2–3.6 and 2.6 m amsl, respectively (Table 1). We observed that the upper limit of living T. chinensis is about + 0.8 m amsl.
Fig. 7

Photographs of a site S1 on Shikinejima, b close-up view of a specimen of T. chinensis (sample TMR1), and c the in situ bivalve C. leana (sample TMR18)

Site S2 is located on bedrock on the east side of Oura Bay, at about + 3.0 m amsl (Fig. 2). The 14C age of well-preserved C. leana is AD 988–1268 (Table 2).

Site S3 is located on bedrock on the west side of Oura Bay, at about + 2.3 m amsl (Fig. 2). This site yielded many well-preserved examples of T. chinensis that yielded 14C dates in the range AD 1216–1505.

Site S4 is located on bedrock on the east side of Nakanoura Bay, at approximately − 0.1 m amsl (Figs. 2 and 8a). This site yielded three in situ colonial zooxanthellate scleractinian corals of Cyphastrea serailia (Fig. 8b), which were 100% aragonite and therefore not susceptible to diagenesis. Their 14C ages exactly matched each other and ranged from AD 1820 to present (Table 2). Observations made while scuba diving indicate that living hermatypic corals at this site occupy water depths greater than 0.5 m.
Fig. 8

Photographs of a site S4 on Shikinejima and b in situ colonies of hermatypic C. serailia (sample NNU41)

Site S5 is a marine cave located in a cliff on the east side of Nakanoura Bay. The cave is 1.8 m wide, 3.0 m high, and 6.0 m long. We collected two well-preserved individual specimens of T. chinensis from inside the cave at an elevation of 1.8 m amsl. Their 14C ages fall within AD 1720 to present (Table 2).

Site S6 is located on bedrock on the Ishijirogawa coast, at about + 3.7 m amsl. One specimen of C. leana was collected and yielded a 14C age of AD 1077–1385 (Table 2).

Kouzushima

Site K1 is located on the southern side of Nagumi Bay and is divided into four subsites (K11, K12, K13, and K14) (Figs. 2 and 9). Well-preserved individuals of Tetraclita sp., Serpulidae sp., and T. chinensis were observed at 0.5–3.0 m amsl on coastal bedrock at sites K11 and K12 (Table 2). We collected many well-preserved in situ azooxanthellate corals of Tubastraea coccinea and Rhizotrochus typus at 3.3–6.9 m amsl from sites K13 and K14 (Fig. 9; Table 2) but did not find intertidal organisms such as T. chinensis and S. kegaki. Although many studies of emerged Holocene marine fossils have been performed in Japan (e.g., Ishibashi et al. 1979; Ota et al. 1983; Kayanne et al. 1987; Maemoku 1988; Miyauchi 1990; Iryu et al. 2009; Kitamura et al. 2014, 2015, 2016, in press), no previous reports of the occurrence of R. typus are known to the authors. All of the coral specimens collected during the present study are 100% aragonite and therefore are not susceptible to subaerial diagenesis, because recrystallization of coral aragonite to calcite occurs in a subaerial setting (Sayani et al. 2011). The 14C ages of specimens at this site range from AD 613 to present and become older with increasing elevation (Table 2).
Fig. 9

a Sketch profiles at site K1. b Photograph of a small emerged gorge-shaped inlet at site K1 on Kouzushima. c Close-up of the exposure. d Occurrence of R. typus (sample K131). e Close-up of the exposure. f Occurrence of R. typus (sample K142) (1) and Tubastraea coccinea (sample K143) (2). g Occurrence of R. typus (sample K141)

Site K2 is located at 9.4–11.4 m amsl on bedrock on the northwest side of Sawajiri Bay (Figs. 2 and 10). At this location, samples were taken at the highest elevation of any site. We collected well-preserved Tetraclita sp., C. leana, Lithophaga curta, and Vermetus tokyoensis. Their 14C ages fall within the range AD 161–686 (Table 2).
Fig. 10

Photographs of a site K2 on Kouzushima, b the emerged sessile assemblages, c specimen of C. leana (sample K22), d the emerged sessile assemblages, and e specimen of Tetraclita sp. (sample K211)

Site K3 is located on bedrock north of Kouzushima Harbor, at 1.2–2.5 m amsl (Fig. 2). Well-preserved Serpulidae sp., C. leana, V. tokyoensis, and L. curta were collected with 14C ages ranging from AD 600 to the present (Table 2).

Site K4 is located on bedrock south of Maehama (Fig. 2). This site yielded individuals of Serpulidae sp., Tetraclita sp., Dendropoma planorbis, and T. chinensis at 0–3.9 m amsl. The 14C ages of the specimens range between AD 626 and the present day and become older with increasing elevation (Table 2).

Emerged sessile assemblages

Figure 11 shows the elevations and ages (2σ) of emerged sessile assemblages from this study and from Ota et al. (1983). Rather than a simple linear trend, the data show stepwise changes in elevations at particular times, meaning that uplift occurred in a series of discrete events rather than as a gradual and continuous process. The mechanism of such uplift is a seismic event or relatively short-lived uplift associated with volcanic activity, such as the AD 2000 eruption of Miyakejima volcano (Fig. 4).
Fig. 11

Elevations and ages of emerged sessile assemblages at the study sites

Based on these elevations and ages, the Shikinejima specimens cluster into two groups (A and B; Fig. 11 and Table 2). Group A occurs between − 0.1 and 1.4 m amsl at Shikinejima (sites S4 and S5), Niijima (site N1), Jinaijima (site J1), and Kouzushima (sites K1, K3, and K4). The ages of the Group A specimens range from AD 1723 to present. Group B samples are defined as those taken at elevations above Group A and are located between 2.0 and 4.0 m amsl at Shikinejima (sites S1, S2, S3, and S6) and Kouzushima (sites K1, K3, and K4); they yield ages of AD 975–1872. Groups C and D are only found on Kouzushima (sites K1–4). Samples in Group C have elevations between those of Groups B and D. Although the elevations of four specimens (K321, K322, K323, and K422) fall within the range defined for Group B, their ages are consistent with other Group C samples, and thus, they are considered to belong to Group C. Groups C and D occur at elevations of 2.45–6.91 m amsl and 9.43–11.43 m amsl, respectively (Fig. 11), with no overlap in elevation. The corresponding age ranges for Groups C and D are AD 600–1165 and AD 161–686, respectively.

Discussion

All of the collected specimens are more recent than AD 160 (Fig. 11). Since relative sea-level reconstructions show that sea level was likely stable at the study site during the past 2000 years (Sato 2008; Woodroffe et al. 2012; Yokoyama et al. 2012; Tanigawa et al. 2013; Tanabe et al. 2016), the occurrence of the emerged sessile assemblages cannot be explained by eustatic sea level changes; instead, it requires local crustal uplift.

The magnitude of the uplift is best estimated by direct measurement of the elevational difference between the upper limit of the uplifted remains and the corresponding upper limit of its present homolog (Laborel and Laborel-Deguen 1994; Pirazzoli et al. 1999). Although the estimated values represent the minimum amount of uplift, this procedure eliminates uncertainties derived from estimates of the bathymetric ranges of each species. If this procedure was not applied, we would have to make a subjective decision about whether any individuals of a species lived higher than the collected specimens but were not preserved. We therefore make this assumption since there is no reliable way of resolving this ambiguity. This estimation method was also used by Pirazzoli et al. (1999), Kitamura et al. (2014, 2015, 2016), and Hamada et al. (2016).

Using the above procedure, we calculated the uplift amount of each specimen. As noted below, the maximum value of each group was derived for each island from specimens found at the highest position in the group. The estimated maximum uplift was regarded as rapid uplift, based on the following conceptual assumptions: (1) each group of emerged assemblages was created by a single uplift event or by gradual uplift over a finite period of time and (2) no vertical crustal motion occurred in the study area during the intervals between discrete uplift events. These assumptions mean that our definition of an uplift event includes both coseismic uplift and relatively short-lived uplift due to volcanic activity. The estimated minimum total amount of uplift for each specimen is shown in Table 2. The defining events of each of Groups A–D are referred to (in reverse chronological order) as uplift events 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

Uplift event 1

Group A consists of C. gigas and S. kegaki at Niijima Island, P. kraussii at Jinaijima, T. chinensis and C. serailia at Shikinejima, and D. planorbis, Serpulidae sp., and Tetraclita sp. at Kouzushima (Table 2).

C. gigas lives in intertidal and subtidal zones, while S. kegaki inhabits the intertidal zone at elevations from − 0.8 to + 0.8 m amsl (Okutani 2000). As noted above, since the upper limit of living S. kegaki is located at +0.4 m amsl, we used both +0.8 m (Okutani 2000) and + 0.4 m (this study) amsl as the upper limit (Table 2). Because the upper limit of C. gigas, which is absent in the study site, is the same as that of S. kegaki, the values + 0.8 and + 0.4 m amsl were used for C. gigas.

The upper limit of encrustation by abundant calcareous tubes of living P. kraussii is located at an elevation of 0.1 ± 0.1 m amsl on Boso Peninsula in Central Japan (Kayanne et al. 1987) and at 0.1–0.2 m amsl on Izu Peninsula in the same region (Kitamura et al. 2014). The value of 0.2 m amsl is used as the upper limit of encrustation of P. kraussii because we did not find living individuals in the study area. Local disappearances of C. gigas and P. kraussii indicate that uplift of the area has made it an unsuitable environment for these species. Identical phenomena were documented in the southern Izu Peninsula by Kitamura et al. (2014).

T. chinensis and D. planorbis inhabit the intertidal zone from − 0.8 to + 0. 8 m amsl (Okutani 2000; Yamaguchi and Hisatsune 2006). This is consistent with our observation that the upper limit of T. chinensis is located at about + 0.8 m amsl. Tetraclita sp. lives around the middle tidal zone (Yamaguchi and Hisatsune 2006).

At site S4, where the specimens of C. serailia were found, our observations while scuba diving indicate that living colonies of C. serailia only inhabit water depths greater than 0.5 m below mean sea level.

Based on the vertical distribution of these living species, uplift event 1 is estimated to have a minimum uplift of 0.5 m at Niijima (samples N11–N14), 0.4 m at Jinaijima (J1), 0.6 m at Shikinejima (sample NNU51), and 1.0 m (0.96 m) at Kouzushima (sample K114). Since the 14C content of many Group A specimens has been influenced by the atomic bomb effect, the uplift of Group A must have occurred after 1950. As noted above, Niijima and Kouzushima experienced up to 0.2 and 0.9 m of gradual uplift during the periods 2000–2014 and 1990–2014, respectively (Fig. 4). These uplift events were caused by the development of a pressure source beneath Kouzushima and dike intrusion associated with the AD 2000 eruption of Miyakejima Volcano, respectively (Kimata et al. 2000; Murakami et al. 2001; Nishimura et al. 2001; Yamaoka et al. 2005). Thus, we conclude that this episode of crustal deformation, from 1990 to 2014, contributed to the emergence of Group A. The differences between our uplift estimates and values derived from instrumental data are 0.3 m at Niijima, 0.2 m at Jinaijima, and 0.4 m at Shikinejima, all of which can be explained by uplift during the period before GPS observation. Uplift was recorded by GPS at these sites as well as at Kouzushima. Thus, Niijima, Jinaijima, and Shikinejima may have experienced gradual uplift before GPS observation. Data of the present data were used to determine the minimum uplift that occurred at Niijima (0.5 m), Jinaijima (0.4 m), Shikinejima (0.6 m), and Kouzushima (0.9 m) during uplift event 1. Many specimens of C. gigas and S. kegaki at Niijima that were found within their living depth ranges were probably killed by burial under sand due to local changes in coastal topography.

Uplift event 2

Group B includes C. leana and T. chinensis at Shikinejima and T. chinensis, T. coccinea, and Serpulidae sp. at Kouzushima (Table 2). Cardita leana inhabits the middle to lower intertidal zone from − 0.8 to + 0.4 m amsl (Okutani 2000), and T. coccinea commonly inhabits water depths of 0–60 m off southwest Japan (Sentoku and Ezaki 2012). Based on the vertical distribution of living species, the minimum total uplift of Group B since the time of active growth of the assemblages is estimated to be 3.3 m at both Shikinejima (sample ISZ61) and Kouzushima (sample K123). If the actual uplift during event 1 was equal to the minimum uplift that we estimate for event 1 in this study, then a minimum of 2.7 m of uplift occurred at Shikinejima and 2.4 m at Kouzushima during uplift event 2.

With the exception of one specimen that yields an age of AD 1539–1872 (sample TMR13), the 14C age ranges of Group B specimens coincide with, or exceed, the AD 1498 Meio earthquake. The age range of sample TMR13 (AD 1539–1872) indicates that the uplift of Group B was caused by an event that occurred after the Meio earthquake. However, we do not exclude the possibility that uplift event 2 was caused by the AD 1498 Meio earthquake, because the ~ 30-year difference between the age of the youngest specimen and the earthquake could be explained by temporal changes in the value of the local correction to the 14C age (ΔR). Hirabayashi et al. (2017) recently reported that ΔR data from Okinawa for 1900–1950 fluctuated from − 136 ± 42 to 62 ± 50 years. Since both the study area and Okinawa are in the Kuroshio region, temporal changes in ΔR will affect the calibration of 14C ages used to provide calendar dates for our specimens. Thus, we cannot exclude the possibility that uplift event 2 at Shikinejima and Kouzushima was caused by the Meio earthquake, in contrast to the interpretation of Ota et al. (1983). Other possible mechanisms include another strong earthquake (i.e., M W ≥ 6.0) or dike intrusion. Many strong earthquakes have struck the study area (Hagiwara and Omote 1936; Honda 1938; Miura 1939; Hamada 2001; Fig. 3). As noted above, dike intrusion associated with the AD 2000 eruption of Miyakejima contributed to uplift event 1 at Kouzushima, Shikinejima, and Niijima (Nishimura et al. 2001; Yamaoka et al. 2005). According to Tsukui and Suzuki (1998), Miyakejima erupted in AD 1469, which might have caused uplift event 2.

Uplift event 3

Group C is found only on Kouzushima and has a wider range of observed elevations than the other groups. This group consists of R. typus (site K1), T. coccinea (site K1), Chama iostoma (site K1), C. leana (site K3), V. tokyoensis (site K3), L. curta (site K3), and Serpulidae sp. (site K4) (Table 2). The bathymetric range of V. tokyoensis is lower intertidal (− 0.4 m amsl) to subtidal; C. iostoma is found from the lower intertidal zone to water depths of 20 m, and L. curta inhabits the intertidal zone to depths of 20 m (Okutani 2000). We observed Serpulidae sp. within the intertidal zone at Kouzushima. Ogawa et al. (1996) describe Rhizotrochus niinoi, a junior synonym of R. typus (Cairns, 1994), as living from the intertidal zone to a maximum depth of 18 m in Kanaya, Chiba, Central Japan. Based on the vertical distribution of living species, the minimum total uplift of Group C since active growth ceased is estimated to be 6.9 m at site K1 (K142), 2.9 m at site K3 (K322), and 3.1 m at K4 (K422). If the uplifts in events 1 (0.9 m) and 2 (2.4 m at K1) were no more than the minimum estimates, then the total uplift is 3.3 m. Thus, we estimate that a minimum of 3.6 m uplift occurred at site K1. While the minimum total uplift of Group C at sites K3 (2.9 m) and K4 (3.1 m) is smaller than the total of 3.3 m when assumption (2) holds, the amount of uplift during events 2 and 3 at sites K3 and K4 is smaller than that at site K1. A similar spatial gradient in uplift was reported by Kimata et al. (2000), who stated that the uplift rate in the northern part of their study area was nearly twice as high as that in the southern part during 1997–2000.

All 14C ages of Group C specimens fall within the period AD 550–1170 BC. During this interval, the AD 838 eruption of Tenjosan volcano on Kouzushima represents the most probable cause of uplift event 3. With the exception of one specimen that yields an age of AD 843–1173 (sample K1441), the 14C age ranges of Group C specimens overlap the eruption date. The ~ 30-year difference between the age of the youngest specimen and the eruption could be explained by temporal changes in ΔR (Hirabayashi et al. 2017). Uplift event 3 could be explained by lava dome formation during the eruption of Tenjosan volcano (Isshiki 1982); other possible mechanisms include strong earthquakes (i.e., M W ≥ 6.0) and dike intrusion. The AD 838–886 eruption of Miyakejima (Tsukui and Suzuki 1998) may have caused uplift event 3.

Uplift event 4

Group D, which is found only at site K2 in Kouzushima, includes Tetraclita sp., V. tokyoensis, C. leana, and L. curta (Table 2). Based on the vertical distribution of living species, the minimum total uplift of Group D since the time of active growth is estimated to be 11.0 m (sample K22). Since the other groups are not seen at site K2, the total amount of uplift over events 1–3, which ranges from 2.9 m (site K3) to 7.7 m (at site K1), indicates 3.3–8.1 m of uplift during event 4.

The 14C ages of Group D specimens lie in the range AD 161–686, indicating that the timing of event 4 overlaps volcanic activity that occurred about 230 years before the AD 838 eruption of Kouzushima (Togashi 1984). Thus, we propose that uplift event 4 was related to this volcanic activity, as well as strong earthquakes (i.e., M W ≥ 6.0) and dike intrusion.

At Shikinejima, the non-calibrated 14C ages of T. chinensis, Tetraclita japonica, Megabalanus rosa, and Saccostrea kegaki (Table 1) presented by Ota et al. (1983) are older than those obtained in this study (Fig. 11). Four specimens (GaK-9717, GaK-9718, GaK-9720, and GaK-9721) have elevations similar to those of Group B, so it is likely that their 14C ages were influenced by contamination by dead carbon after being uplifted with Group B. Spurgeon et al. (2003) obtained radiocarbon dates of shells and cements of carbonate-cemented shell debris located along the coast of the Florida Peninsula, USA. Their results show that the cement ages were 1400–1600 years older than those of the shells. Spurgeon et al. (2003) proposed that dead carbon was introduced during the dissolution–cementation process, causing the cement to yield dates much older than when cementation likely occurred. On the other hand, the elevations of two specimens (GaK-9719 and GaK-9722) are ~ 1.1 m higher than in Group B. This may indicate that uplift took place before uplift event 2. However, no further comparison between the results of Ota et al. (1983) and this study is possible, because we cannot measure the 14C ages of the specimens examined by Ota et al. (1983).

Conclusions

We re-examined Holocene crustal movements at Niijima, Jinaijima, Shikinejima, and Kouzushima based on marine species compositions and determined the AMS 14C ages of emerged sessile assemblages. Our conclusions are as follows:
  1. 1.

    We identified four groups of emerged sessile assemblages that we infer to have been uplifted during four rapid events (uplift events 1–4). The ages of these events are estimated to be after AD 1950, AD 786–1891, AD 600–1165, and AD 161–686, respectively. The minimum amounts of uplift during events 1–4 are estimated to be 0.4–0.9, 2.4–2.6, 3.6, and 3.3–8.1 m, respectively.

     
  2. 2.

    Uplift event 1 was caused by the appearance of a pressure source and dike intrusion associated with the AD 2000 eruption of Miyakejima Volcano. These mechanisms, along with strong earthquakes, are the most likely causes of uplift events 2, 3, and 4. Considering the timing of uplift event 2, there is the possibility that the AD 1498 Meio earthquake caused the event. The volcanic eruption of AD 838 and a previous eruptive episode in Kouzushima are also candidate mechanisms for uplift events 3 and 4, respectively.

     

Abbreviations

AMS: 

Accelerator mass spectrometry

amsl: 

Above mean sea level

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We thank Drs. Toshiyuki Yamaguchi, Kaoru Sugihara, and Asuka Sentoku for assistance with identifying barnacles and corals, respectively. We thank three anonymous reviewers and associate editor Ken Ikehara for their thoughtful input into this manuscript. The sampling of specimens was conducted with a permit issued by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Kanto Regional Ministry of the Environment.

Funding

This study was funded by Grants-in-Aid (26287126, 17H02972) awarded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Authors’ contributions

AK conceived and designed the study and collected samples. TI identified specimens of mollusks and undertook 14C analysis of the samples. TI and YM discussed the sources of crustal deformation. MI investigated the distribution of living corals. YM and YY undertook 14C analysis of the samples. YT identified specimens of corals. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Institute of Geosciences, Shizuoka University
(2)
Center for Integrated Research and Education of Natural Hazards, Shizuoka University
(3)
Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo
(4)
Tottori University of Environmental Studies

References

  1. Aida I (1981) Numerical experiments of historical tsunamis generated off the coast of the Tokaido district. Bull Earthquake Res Inst 56:367–390 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  2. Ando M (1975) Source mechanisms and tectonic significance of historical earthquakes along the Nankai trough, Japan. Tectonophysics 27:119–140View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Bronk Ramsey C (1995) Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: the OxCal program. Radiocarbon 37(2):425–530View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Bronk Ramsey C, Lee C (2013) Recent and planned development of the program OxCal. Radiocarbon 55(2–3):720–730View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Cairns SD (1994) Scleractinia of the temperate North Pacific. Smithsonian Contrib Zool 557:1–150Google Scholar
  6. Chamot-Rooke N, Le Pichon X (1989) Zenisu Ridge: mechanical model of formation. Tectonophysics 160(1):175–193View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Coastal Movements Data Center (accessed on 3 December 2016) Table of annual mean sea level along the Japanese coast. http://cais.gsi.go.jp/cmdc/center/annual.html#9
  8. Fukutomi K (1935) Crustal movements of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan, based on historical documents and oral traditions (part 1). Zisin (J Seis Soc Japan) 7:145–153 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. Fukutomi K (1938) Traces of uplifts at Niijima and Shikinejima, Japan. Zisin (J Seis Soc Japan) 10:1–4 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. Hagiwara T, Omote S (1936) The Niizima earthquake of December 27, 1936. Bull Earthquake Res Inst 15:559–568 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  11. Hamada M, HiramatsuY OM, Yamaguchi H (2016) Fossil tubeworms link coastal uplift of the northern Noto peninsula to rupture of the Wajima-oki fault in AD 1729. Tectonophysics 670:38–47View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Hamada N (2001) A history of seismic activity around Miyakejima, Kouzushima and Niijima, the Northern Izu Islands. J Geogr 110:132–144 (in Japanese with English abstract)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Hatori T (1975) Sources of large tsunamis generated in the Boso, Tokai and Nankai regions in 1498 and 1605. Bull Earthquake Res Inst 50:171–185 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  14. Hirabayashi S, Yokoyama Y, Suzuki A, Miyairi Y, Aze T (2017) Short-term fluctuations in regional radiocarbon reservoir age recorded in coral skeletons from the Ryukyu Islands in the north-western Pacific. J Quat Sci 32:1–6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Honda K (1938) Report of Izu-Niijima area affected by strong earthquake at 1936, 27 December. Quart J Seis 10:147–150 (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  16. Iryu Y, Maemoku H, Yamada T, Maeda Y (2009) Limestones as a paleobathymeter for reconstructing past seismic activities: Muroto-misaki, Shikoku, southwestern Japan. Glob Planet Chang 66:52–64View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Ishibashi K, Ota Y, Matsuda T (1979) Radiocarbon ages of raised shell beds at the southern tip of Izu Peninsula, central Japan. Zisin (J Seismol Soc Jpn) Ser 2 32:105–107 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Ishibashi K, Satake K (1998) Problems of forecasting great earthquakes in the subduction zones around Japan by means of paleoseismology. Zisin (J Seismol Soc Jpn) Ser 2 50:1–21 (in Japanese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  19. Ishihara T (1989) Gravimetric determination of the density of the Zenisu Ridge. Tectonophysics 160(1):195–205View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Isshiki N (1982) Geology of the Kouzushima district. quadrangle series scale 1:50,000. Geol Surv Jpn :34 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  21. Isshiki N (1987) Geology of the Niijima district. quadrangle series scale 1:50,000. Geol Surv Jpn :85 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  22. Kayanne H, Yamamuro M, Matsumoto E (1987) Pomatoleios kraussi (BAIRD) as a paleo sea level indicator on the southeast coast of Boso Peninsula, central Japan. Quat Res (Daiyonki-Kenkyu) 26:47–57 (in Japanese with English abstract)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Kimata F, Kariya S, Fujita M, Matsumoto K, Tabei T, Segawa J, Yamada A (2000) Estimated pressure source in Kozu Island volcano, southern Central Japan, with GPS measurements (July 1996–August 1999). Earth Planets Space 52:975–978View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Kitamura A, Imai T, Miyairi Y, Yokoyama Y, Iryu Y. (in press) Radiocarbon dating of coastal boulders from Kouzushima and Miyakejima Islands off Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan: implications for coastal hazard risk. Quat Int. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2017.05.040
  25. Kitamura A, Koyama M, Itasaka K, Miyairi Y, Mori H (2014) Abrupt late Holocene uplifts of the southern Izu Peninsula, central Japan: evidence from emerged marine sessile assemblages. Island Arc 23:51–61View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Kitamura A, Mitsui Y, Kawate S, Kim HY (2015) Examination of an active submarine fault off the southeast Izu Peninsula, central Japan, using field evidence for coseismic uplift and a characteristic earthquake model. Earth Planets Space 67:197. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-015-0367-z View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Kitamura A, Ohashi Y, Ishibashi H, Miyairi Y, Yokoyama Y, Ikuta R, Ito Y, Ikeda M. Shimano T (2016) Holocene geohazard events on the southern Izu Peninsula, central Japan. Quat Int 397:541−555Google Scholar
  28. Laborel J, Laborel-Deguen F (1994) Biological indicators of relative sea-level variations and of coseismic displacements in the Mediterranean region. J Coast Res 10(2):395–415Google Scholar
  29. Lallemant S, Chamot-Rooke N, Le Pichon X, Rangin C (1989) Zenisu Ridge: a deep intraoceanic thrust related to subduction, off southwest Japan. Tectonophysics 160(1):151–174View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Le Pichon X, Iiyama T, Boulègue J, Charvet J, Faure M, Kano K, Lallemant S, Okada H, Rangin C, Taira A, Uyeda S, Urabe T (1987) Nankai Trough and Zenisu Ridge: a deep-sea submersible survey. Earth Planet Sci Lett 83(1–4):285–299View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Maemoku H (1988) Holocene crustal movement in Muroto Peninsula, southwest Japan. Geogr Rev Jpn 61:747–769 (in Japanese with English abstract)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Mazzotti S, Henry P, Le Pichon X (2001) Transient and permanent deformation of central Japan estimated by GPS: 2. strain partitioning and arc–arc collision. Earth Planet Sci Lett 184(2):455–469View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Mazzotti S, Henry P, Le Pichon X, Sagiya T (1999) Strain partitioning in the zone of transition from Nankai subduction to Izu–Bonin collision (Central Japan): implications for an extensional tear within the subducting slab. Earth Planet Sci Lett 172(1):1–10View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Miura T (1939) Preliminary report of focal mechanism of earthquakes at 1938, 27 December in Niijima, Japan. Quart J Seis 10(1):65–77 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  35. Miyauchi T (1990) Holocene coastal seismotectonics in the eastern margin of the sea of Japan. J Geogr (Chigaku Zasshi) 99:390–391 (in Japanese)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  36. Murakami M, Nishimura T, Ozawa S (2001) Crustal deformation associated with the 2000 eruption of Miyake volcano and earthquake swarm near Kozu island. Bull Geospat Inf Auth Jpn 95:115–−120 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. Nakagawa H, Toyofuku T, Kotani K, Miyahara B, Iwashita C, Kawamoto S, Hatanaka Y, Munekane H, Ishimoto M, Yutsudo T, Ishikura N, Sugawara Y (2009) Development and validation of GEONET new analysis strategy (version 4). J Geogr Surv Inst 118:1–8 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  38. Nakanishi A, Shiobara H, Hino R, Kodaira S, Kanazawa T, Shimamura H (1994) Detailed Subduction structure of the Philippine Sea plate off Tokai District deduced by Airgun-Ocean bottom seismograph profiling: crustal structure of the Zenisu Ridge and the eastern Nankai trough. Zisin (J Seismol Soc Jpn) Ser 2 47(3):311–331Google Scholar
  39. Nishimura T, Ozawa S, Murakami M, Sagiya T, Tada T, Kaidzu M, Ukawa M (2001) Crustal deformation caused by magma migration in the northern Izu Islands, Japan. Geophys Res Lett 28:3745–3748View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  40. Nishimura T, Sagiya T, Stein RS (2007) Crustal block kinematics and seismic potential of the northernmost Philippine Sea plate and Izu microplate, central Japan, inferred from GPS and leveling data. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 112(B05414)Google Scholar
  41. Ogawa K, Takahashi K, Tachikawa H, Chiba J (1996) A revision of the Japanese ahermatypic corals around the coastal region with guide to identification, III. Genera Rhizotrochus, Javania, Desmophyllum, Culicia, Phyllangia, and Oulangia. Nankiseibutu (Nanki Biol Soc) 38(1):37–48 (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  42. Okutani T (2000) Marine mollusks in Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, p 1173Google Scholar
  43. Ota Y, Ishibashi K, Matsushima Y, Matsuda T, Miyoshi M, Kashima K, Matsubara A (1986) Holocene relative sea-level change in the southern part of Izu Peninsula, central Japan; data from subsurface investigation. Quat Res (Daiyonki-Kenkyu) 25:203–223 (in Japanese with English abstract)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  44. Ota Y, Ishibashi K, Moriwaki H (1983) Late Holocene uplift of Shikine Island on the northern tip of the Philippine Sea Plate. Zisin (J Seismol Soc Jpn) Ser 2 36:587–595 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  45. Pirazzoli PA, Stiros SC, Arnold M, Laborel J, Laborel-Deguen F (1999) Late Holocene coseismic vertical displacements and tsunami deposits near Kynos, Gulf of Euboea, Central Greece. Phys Chem Earth A 24(4):361–367View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  46. Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PG, Bronk RC, Buck CE, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Friedrich M, Grootes PM, Guilderson TP, Haflidason H, Hajdas I, Hatté C, Heaton TJ, Hoffmann DL, Hogg AG, Hughen KA, Kaiser KF, Kromer B, Manning SW, Niu M, Reimer RW, Richards DA, Scott EM, Southon JR, Staff RA, Turney CSM, Van der Plicht J (2013) IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):1869–1887View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  47. Sagiya T (1999) Interplate coupling in the Tokai district, central Japan, deduced from continuous GPS data. Geophys Res Lett 26(15):2315–2318View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  48. Sato H (2008) Reconstruction of Holocene sea-level change along the coast of Harimanada in the eastern part of the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. Quat Res (Daiyonki Kenkyu) 47:247–259 (in Japanese with English abstract)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  49. Sayani HR, Cobb KM, Cohen AL, Elliott WC, Nurhati IS, Dunbar RB, Rose KA, Zaunbrecher LK (2011) Effects of diagenesis on paleoclimate reconstructions from modern and young fossil corals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:6361–6373View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  50. Sentoku A, Ezaki Y (2012) Regularity in budding mode and resultant growth morphology of the azooxanthellate colonial scleractinian Tubastraea coccinea. Coral Reefs 31:67–74View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  51. Shishikura M (2014) History of the paleo-earthquakes along the Sagami trough, central Japan: review of coastal paleoseismological studies in the Kanto region. Episodes 37:246–257Google Scholar
  52. Spurgeon D, Davis RA Jr, Shinnu EA (2003) Formation of ‘beach rock’ at Siesta Key, Florida and its influence on barrier island development. Mar Geol 200:19–29View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  53. Tanabe S, Hori K, Momohara A, Nakashima R (2016) Verification of the “Yayoi regression” in the Tonegawa Lowland, central Japan. J Geol Soc Jpn 122:135–153 (in Japanese with English abstract)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  54. Tanigawa K, Hyodo M, Sato H (2013) Holocene relative sea-level changes and rate of sea-level rise from coastal deposits in the Toyooka Basin, western Japan. The Holocene 23:1039–1051View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  55. Togashi S (1984) 14C ages of charcoal from pyroclastics of Tenjosan volcano, Kouzushima, the Izu lslands, Japan. Volcanol Soc Jpn II 4:277–283Google Scholar
  56. Tsukui M, Suzuki Y (1998) Eruptive history of Miyakejima volcano during the last 7000 years. Volcanol Soc Jpn II 43:149–166Google Scholar
  57. Woodroffe CD, McGregor HV, Lambeck K, Smithers SG, Fink D (2012) Mid-Pacific microatolls record sea-level stability over the past 5000 yr. Geology 40(10):951–954View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  58. Yamaguchi T, Hisatsune Y (2006) Taxonomy and identification of Japanese barnacles. Sessile Org 23(1):1–15View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  59. Yamaoka K, Kawamura M, Kimata F, Fujii N, Kudo T (2005) Dike intrusion associated with the 2000 eruption of Miyakejima volcano, Japan. Bull Volcanol 67:231–242View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  60. Yokoyama Y, Anderson J, Yamane M, Simkins LM, Miyairi Y, Yamazaki T, Koizumi M, Suga H, Kusahara K, Prothro L, Hasumi H, Southon JR, Ohkouchi N (2016) Widespread collapse of the Ross ice shelf during the late Holocene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(9):2354–2359View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  61. Yokoyama Y, Okuno J, Miyairi Y, Obrochta SP, Demboya N, Makino Y, Kawahata H (2012) Holocene sea-level change and Antarctic melting history derived from geological observations and geophysical modeling along the Shimokita peninsula, northern Japan. Geophys Res Lett 39:L13502. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051983 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  62. Yoneda M, Kitagawa H, van der Plicht J, Ushida M, Tanaka A, Uehiro T, Shibata Y, Morita M, Ohno T (2000) Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: preliminary result on Kyoto University collection. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect B 172(1):377–381View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2017

Advertisement