 Research article
 Open Access
 Published:
Crustal deformation detection capability of the GNSSA seafloor geodetic observation array (SGOA), provided by Japan Coast Guard
Progress in Earth and Planetary Science volume 8, Article number: 63 (2021)
Abstract
The GNSSA technique is an observation method that can detect seafloor crustal deformations with centimeterlevel positioning accuracy. The GNSSA seafloor geodetic observation array operated by the Japan Coast Guard (SGOA) has been constructed near the Japanese Islands along the Nankai Trough and the Japan Trench. This observation array has detected several earthquakes’ displacements and episodic slow crustal deformation. To compare the detection results of SGOA with other observation networks and expand the SGOA coverage area, it is necessary to correctly understand its detection capability. In this paper, numerical simulations and statistical verifications were used to assess the capabilities of the present GNSSA system using a manned vessel (observation frequency: 4–6 times/year, positioning accuracy: standard deviation = 1.5 cm) to detect (1) secular deformation only, (2) a transient slip event only and (3) secular deformation and a transient event together. We verified these results with appropriate thresholds and found the following features: When it is known that there is no transient event, the 95% confidence level (CL) for the estimation of secular crustal deformation rate with 4year observation is about 0.5–0.8 cm/year; when the deformation rate is known, a signal of about 3.0 cm can be detected by observations of about 4 times before and after the transient event. When the deformation rate and the transient event are detected together, to keep the false positive low (about 0.05), the false negative becomes high (about 0.7–0.2 for detecting a signal of 4.5–6.0 cm). The determined rate and event variations are approximately 1.8 cm/year (95%CL) and 1.5 cm (standard deviation), respectively. We also examined the detection capability for higher observation frequency and positioning accuracy, to examine how the detection capability improves by technological advancements in the future. Additionally, we calculated the spatial range of event detectability using the determined values of detection sensitivity. Obtained results show that each seafloor site can detect a slip event of < 1.0 m scale within about 30 km radius, and approximately onethird of the subseafloor slip event over 100 km from land along the Nankai Trough can only be detected by SGOA.
1 Introduction
A subduction zone where a tectonic plate subducts beneath another plate frequently causes megathrust earthquakes. To prevent associated disasters, it is important to elucidate the physical mechanism involved in such earthquakes. Accurate monitoring of crustal activities related to the earthquake cycle, i.e., inter, co and postseismic processes, plays an essential role for this purpose. Because the cycle contains many types of geophysical phenomena with different time scales, many types of geodetic and seismological observations are conducted to monitor them (Table 1). These observations contribute to the understanding of surface oscillations and crustal movements caused by subsurface geophysical phenomena.
Space geodetic observation techniques such as the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) mainly contribute to the monitoring of longterm phenomena such as inter and postseismic processes and permanent displacement associated with coseismic process. However, because most of the subducting plate boundaries, which are the focal regions of megathrust earthquakes, are located underneath the seafloor far away from the coast, it is difficult to monitor these phenomena accurately by terrestrial GNSS (e.g., Yoshioka and Matsuoka 2013; Schmalzle et al. 2014; Williamson and Newman 2018).
GNSSA (Global Navigation Satellite System–acoustic ranging combination technique) is a new seafloor geodetic observation technique capable of measuring such subseafloor boundary processes by combining GNSS and underwater acoustic ranging (Spiess 1985; Asada and Yabuki 2001; Fujita et al. 2006). Along the Japan Trench and the Nankai Trough, the GNSSA seafloor geodetic observation array (SGOA) has been deployed by the Japan Coast Guard. SGOA succeeded in detecting various geodetic phenomena on the seafloor, e.g., interplate coupling condition estimated from longterm crustal velocity (Yokota et al. 2016), transient motions due to slow slip events (SSEs) (Yokota and Ishikawa 2020), coseismic slips (Sato et al. 2011) and timedependent postseismic deformation (Watanabe et al. 2014, 2021).
However, compared to landbased GNSS, seafloor GNSSA presently has limited spatiotemporal resolution and positioning accuracy to detect geodetic phenomena. GNSSA requires a sea surface platform to combine the GNSS positioning and acoustic ranging. While GNSS has achieved continuous observation networks, GNSSA is limited to discontinuous campaign observation, because the present platform is mainly a manned vessel. The annual observation frequency of GNSSA operated by Japan Coast Guard is at least about 4 times per site (Ishikawa et al. 2020). In the future, the observation frequency is expected to be upgraded by buoys and selfpropelled sea surface platforms (e.g., Tadokoro et al. 2020; Foster et al. 2020; Iinuma et al. 2021).
In the best cases, the standard deviation (σ) of the GNSSA data is about 1.5 cm for the horizontal component, using the present analysis method (Watanabe et al. 2020). Empirically, the positioning uncertainty can be considered as Gaussian noise (Yokota et al. 2018). The main sources of noise are spatiotemporally multiscale ocean disturbances such as shortterm perturbations, diurnal fluctuations, ocean currents and others. Although the researchers try to reduce the effect by sophisticating their models (e.g., Yokota et al. 2019, 2020; Yokota and Ishikawa 2019; Kinugasa et al. 2020; Watanabe et al. 2020), it is still difficult to completely model them. Incompleteness of the ocean model causes systematic bias in positioning, i.e., outliers in time series unexpected from Gaussian noise. In addition, random walk noise of GNSS positioning, or unexpected equipment error, e.g., misalignment of equipment mounting position in sea surface unit, may cause systematic bias in positioning. These systematic errors, which cannot be controlled by the present analysis and observation systems, are not treated in this paper.
This positioning accuracy is much worse than the daily coordinate data (σ \(\le\) 0.5 cm) of terrestrial GNSS observation networks such as the GEONET (Nakagawa et al. 2009). Moreover, the distance between SGOA sites is about 100 km, while that of the GEONET is about 30 km, and the low spatial density of observation sites caused lowerspatialresolution offshore than for the onshore area.
Due to these limitations, it is necessary to collect enough data through longterm observations to detect geodetic phenomena accurately by GNSSA. In addition, the magnitude of the phenomena must be large enough to be detected. In this paper, we examined the detection capability of the geodetic phenomena shown in Table 1 from temporally sparse geodetic time series data using statistical test and numerical experiments. Because the detection conditions differ depending on the known information and the target event, tests were conducted under three types of conditions. Additionally, we examined the ability to detect interplate boundary slip in the present SGOA along the Nankai Trough and the Japan Trench.
2 Detection capability tests: methods
Seismic cycle geophysical phenomena observed geodetically can be broadly divided into four types, as shown in Table 1. Steady secular crustal deformation due to plate coupling or rigid block motions in the absence of transient events is simply detected as linear steady trends (gray column in Table 1). The trend is estimated by regression analysis (Fig. 1a). The effect of the amount and duration of the data on the estimation of the trend is discussed in subsections ‘Trend estimation.’ Regular earthquakes and cumulative displacement of SSEs are detected as noncontinuous step signals (yellow column in Table 1). The step is estimated by taking the difference between the average positions before and after the transient event (Fig. 1b). The effect of the number of observations on the statistical test of the significance of the step is discussed in subsections ‘Step detection without trend.’ In the real systems, the trend and the step are often estimated simultaneously (blue column in Table 1). Thus, in subsections ‘Step detection with trend,’ we discuss the methods for estimating these two values simultaneously and their uncertainties (Fig. 1c). Postseismic deformation is detected as nonlinear change that decreases with time (brown column in Table 1). To estimate the change, various models have been considered such as logarithmic or exponential. In this paper, although we do not consider nonlinear change of time series due to the complexity of models, we discuss it supplementarily in subsections ‘Trend estimation.’
We examined the ability of temporally sparse geodetic data to detect these phenomena using virtual datasets. In the following verifications, we assumed that the time series data have a Gaussian noise with standard deviation of σ. In the latter half of subsections ‘Trend estimation’ and all of subsections ‘Step detection with trend,’ we verified by numerical simulations using pseudodata.
2.1 Trend estimation
First, we describe methods to assess the uncertainty in quantifying a secular deformation that results from plate motion or rigid block motion, which is observed as a linear trend (Fig. 1a). To detect the heterogeneity of plate coupling in the source region of the megathrust earthquake, it is necessary to estimate the velocity with an accuracy of less than 1 cm/year. Here, we assessed how much data are needed for this purpose.
We considered time series (annual observation frequency = f) having the standard deviation σ along a linear function for an observation period (T) (as shown in Fig. 1a). The trend was estimated by linear regression with a linear function, \(a+bt\) (a and b are model parameters unknown to be estimated). The unbiased variance of the trend b is represented as
where \({t}_{i}\) is the time of ith data, σ is the standard deviation of data and \(\overline{t }\) is the average of \({t}_{i}\). At this time, since the result depends on σ, a result can be applied to any σ data by normalizing with σ.
To verify the heterogeneity detection of the crustal velocity field, the significance test of the differences of the trend among adjacent sites is necessary. This test is also effective to detect the temporal variation between two periods in the case of a nonlinear trend such as postseismic deformation. For this test, we numerically generated pseudodata as shown in Fig. 1a along a linear function. We conducted a statistical hypothesis test to examine whether the null hypothesis that the trends of two time series are the same can be rejected at a significance level of 0.05. Here, we tested by 1000 numerical experiments on two pseudodata with the same period and observation frequency.
2.2 Step detection without trend
In this subsection, we describe methods to assess the uncertainty in quantifying a transient deformation that results from earthquake or SSE, which is observed as a steplike signal (Fig. 1b). When a seismic event occurs, a steplike signal appears in the time series. The step is detected from the difference between the average positions before and after the transient event. In this subsection, we examined the effect of the number of the data on the statistical test of the significance of the step. For simplicity, we assumed that there is no trend in the time series of our statistical tests. This means that either the trend has been removed by trend estimation, or the period of the data is short enough to neglect the trend. Simultaneous estimation of both trend and step is discussed in the next subsection.
We considered the case of detecting a signal in a time series as shown in Fig. 1b and conducted a statistical test for the difference between the mean value before and after the transient event. The significance of the event is judged based on whether the null hypothesis that the mean value before and after the transient event is equal is rejected or not. There are two types of errors in the statistical test. A type I error (false positive) α is the rejection of a true null hypothesis and a type II error (false negative) β is the nonrejection of a false null hypothesis. To detect an event accurately, these two types of errors need to be small. The condition is determined by the number of the data (sample size) and the magnitude of the event (effect size).
The statistical power γ (probability of correctly detecting a significant difference \(\varDelta\) (effect size)) is defined as
Parameters in the equations are defined as follows: P: onesided probability of Gaussian distribution, Z_{1}: test statistic, Z: value in Gaussian distribution, n: sample size, \(\varDelta\): effect size (difference between the mean values of the two samples normalized by the standard deviation.), \(\alpha\): twosided confidence level (false positive rate), \(\varDelta\) for n is discussed at a certain threshold value for γ. Here, \(\varDelta\) was determined from Eq. (2) when γ = 0.8, which is generally used. We determined n (the number of observations before and after the transient event) as the minimum sample size for \(\varDelta\).
To verify the accuracy of the step detection, the uncertainty (standard deviation: σ_{s}) of the detected step was also estimated by Eq. (2) for the case of having a certain step at the center of the observation period. The results are evaluated by standardizing with σ.
2.3 Step detection with trend
In the actual geodetic time series, it is necessary to detect the transient event from a short time series, in which the trend and the timing of the event are unknown. We here describe a method to assess the uncertainty in quantifying a trend and a transient deformation that results from earthquake or SSE during plate motion or rigid block motion (Fig. 1c). If the trend is assumed to be unchanged before and after the transient event, the time series is represented as a piecewise line (Fig. 1c) as follows,
where t_{1} and t_{2} are the beginning and the ending times of the transient event, respectively. Because the estimation of t_{1} and t_{2} is a nonlinear regression problem, we used the numerical estimation using grid search which is similar to the method proposed in Yokota and Ishikawa (2020). Once t_{1} and t_{2} are fixed, fitting a piecewise line is a linear regression problem. We searched the best result which minimizes the cAIC (Akaike 1974; Sugiura 1978), by varying t_{1} every 0.1 year. The duration of the transient event (t_{2} − t_{1}) is fixed to 1 year; the uncertainty of the estimation of duration is discussed later. The cAIC is defined as follows:
where m, k and RSS are the number of total data, number of model parameters and the residual sum of squares, respectively. In addition, we calculated the cAIC when fitting a straight line, which assume no transient event in the time series. If the cAIC when fitting a piecewise line is smaller than that of a straight line, the transient event has been detected statistically. Here, we used ΔcAIC ((cAIC when fitting a piecewise line)—(cAIC when fitting a straight line)).
To verify the detection capability of the trend and the step, we examined the difference between the model estimated from pseudodata and the original model. Based on the result of Sects. 2.1 and 3.1, we numerically generated 6year time series pseudodata for stable estimation of the trend, and the 1year transient event was set in the center of the time series as shown in Fig. 1c. The duration of the transient event was fixed to 1 year also in the estimation. Pseudodata were created adding a Gaussian noise (standard deviation = σ) to the original model described above created according to Eqs. (3) and (4). We used pseudodata with various event size (D: deformation size) and the observation frequency (f) and examined in each case with 1000 trials. Here, we tried D from 0 to 8σ and f from 1 to 365 times/year. The verification results are evaluated by standardizing with σ.
3 Detection capability tests: results
3.1 Trend estimation
Figure 2a shows the 95% confidence level (CL) of the trend normalized by σ with respect to f calculated by Eq. (1). 95%CL is calculated using Student's tdistribution function (Student 1908). Each color of the series represents the cases of T of 1–5 years. In the case of f ~ 4–6 times/year, which is equivalent to the present GNSSA observation using a manned vessel (vesselGNSSA), at least 4 years of observation is required to achieve an accuracy of about 0.5σ/year. For example, with the present vesselGNSSA data of σ = 1.5 cm, an accuracy of approximately 0.5–0.8 cm/year is achieved by observing for 4 years. If daily observation (f = 365 times/year) is realized, an accuracy of less than 1.0 cm/year will be achieved by less than 1 year of observation.
The results of the significant test using numerical pseudodata show the smallest difference of trends for which the null hypothesis is rejected at the 0.05 level (Fig. 2b). Detectable differences are about twice as large as the 95%CL trend sensitivity for a given observation frequency and duration. The present vesselGNSSA can detect a difference of approximately 1.0–1.5 cm/year by observing for 4 years.
3.2 Step detection without trend
Figure 3a shows γ with respect to Δ for \(\alpha =0.05\). The sample sizes (n) before and after the transient event, S_{1} and S_{2}, respectively, are set to be equal. The statistical power increases with increasing sample size and effect size. When the threshold of γ is set to 0.8, sample size of 12 and 4 are required to detect transient events with size of 1σ and 2σ, respectively. Figure 3c shows σ_{s} of the detected step size with respect to the sample size obtained by the law of propagation of errors. σ_{s} decreases according to \(1/\sqrt{n}\). When observing one year before and after the transient event, the sample size equals the observation frequency.
When an earthquake or SSE occurs, it is necessary to detect permanent crustal deformations urgently, for the rapid evaluation of the event. Because there is a large amount of uncertainty in onetime observation, we here consider twotime observation after the event. Figure 3b shows γ when the sample size after the event (S_{2} in Fig. 1b) is set to 2. When the threshold of γ is set to 0.8, S_{1} (in Fig. 1b) are 12 and 4 to detect events of 2σ and 2.7σ, respectively.
3.3 Step detection with trend
Here, we first examined the detection probability of the transient event. Figure 4a shows the rate of false positive of our method, i.e., the probability that the piecewise line is incorrectly determined to be more significant than the straight line despite the absence of an event (D = 0), when applying thresholds of 0, 5 and 10 for the –Δc−AIC. If the threshold is set to 0, the false detection rate becomes larger than 0.6–0.7, suggesting that this threshold cannot be used practically for detection of a step in a trend. The false detection rate can be improved by increasing the threshold; in the case where the threshold is set to 10, the false detection rate is about less than 0.05, which can be used practically.
Figure 4b–d show the probability of false negative of our method, i.e., when the piecewise line is incorrectly determined to be less significant than the straight line, despite the existence of an event, when applying thresholds of 0, 5 and 10 for the –ΔcAIC. It decreases by increasing annual observation frequency and event size. Contrary to the case of the false positive, the false negative rate increases by increasing the threshold of –ΔcAIC. For the actual geodetic time series, it is necessary to set appropriate thresholds according to the purpose, due to the tradeoff relation between false positive and false negative. For example, accepting a high false negative rate will decrease the false positive rate due to the tradeoff relation. However, a high false negative rate indicates that we are failing to detect many of the transient events that are actually occurring. On the other hand, an exceedingly high false positive rate indicates that we are detecting events that are not actually occurring, which might lead to false findings for research of the physical earthquake process. From the viewpoint of disaster prevention, it may be beneficial to issue an alarm, even if the predictions are likely to be wrong. Therefore, in some cases, it is necessary to accept false positive rate to some degree.
Increasing the observation frequency is effective in reducing the false negative rate while keeping the false positive rate low even for the detection of a small step signal. For example, according to Fig. 4d, if the observation frequency was improved from about every 2 months (6 times/year) to about every 2 weeks (25 times/year), the false negative rate of 0.8 for the 2σ step signal is improved to 0.15. In the case of GNSSA using unmanned platforms, this is a realistic observation frequency.
Next, we examined the accuracy of trend and transient event determinations. Since the determination accuracy cannot be discussed for thresholds with high false positive rates, we evaluated the case of –ΔcAIC > 10 and f = 2–365 times/year. Figure 5 shows the difference (O–C) between the parameters of the estimated model and the original model. Comparing to the former subsections where the trend and step are estimated independently (Figs. 2 and 3), the accuracy of trend and step estimation becomes worse when these parameters are estimated simultaneously (Fig. 5a, b). Figure 5c shows the 90th percentile width, median and average of O–C of occurrence times. These results suggest that the occurrence time can be determined approximately ± 0.5 years with a 90% probability in cases where the annual observation frequency is larger than 4 times/year and the event size is larger than 3σ.
4 Discussions
4.1 Summary of detection capability
As concrete cases, we compared the cases of campaign vesselGNSSA and dailyGNSS (Table 2). The annual observation frequency (f) and standard deviation of horizontal positioning (σ) of the present GNSSA are 4–6 times/year and 1.5 cm, respectively (Ishikawa et al. 2020). In the case of dailyGNSS (f = 365 times/year), σ is better than 0.5 cm (e.g., Nakagawa et al. 2009; Suito 2016). Since the above tests depend on σ itself, detection capability of dailyGNSS with different σ and f can be derived from these test results.
We first considered the trend detection capability when it is known that there is no step (Fig. 2). In the case of dailyGNSS, it is possible to detect less than 0.5 cm/year (95%CL) even with 1year observation. On the other hand, vesselGNSSA needs longer observation period to detect the trend accurately. According to Fig. 2a, vesselGNSSA can achieve an accuracy of less than 1 cm/year (0.5–0.8 cm/year) with 4year observation. Differences between the deformation rate of observation sites or different time periods can be detected with the accuracy of 1.0–1.5 cm/year with 4year observation according to Fig. 2b.
In the future, it may be possible for an advanced selfpropelled buoy to observe a seafloor site about once a week, even if the weather and the sea surface environment is taken into consideration. Considering the positioning accuracy of GNSS, future GNSSA may be improved up to about σ = 1 cm and f = 50 times/year. The improvement in f has a great effect especially when T is short. In f = 50 times/year, it is possible to detect the secular crustal deformation of 1.0σ/year and the difference of 2.0σ (1.0 cm/year and 2.0 cm in the future) even for 1year observation.
The step detection capability when the trend can be ignored is shown in Fig. 3. In the case of dailyGNSS, it is possible to detect a step of less than 0.1 cm with the accuracy of σ_{s} ~ 0.05 cm by 1year observation before and after the transient event according to Fig. 3a, c. On the other hand, in the case of vesselGNSSA, a step of 3.0 cm can be detected with the accuracy of σ_{s} ~ 1.0 cm by 1year observation before and after the transient event.
According to Fig. 3b, dailyGNSS can detect a step of 1.0 cm even 2 days after the transient event. GNSSA can detect a step of 4.0 cm by two observations after the transient event. Improving the observation frequency and positioning accuracy also has a positive effect on emergency detection. Especially when a step of 4.0 cm or more is predicted, twotime emergency observation should be performed.
We finally considered the detection capability and the accuracy when both trend and step should be considered (Figs. 4 and 5). In the case of dailyGNSS (σ = 0.5 cm, f = 365 times/year), when the threshold of –ΔcAIC is set to 10, the false negative rate will be almost 0 according to Fig. 4a. The determination accuracy of trends and steps is 0.1 cm/year (95%CL), 0.1 cm or less (standard deviation), and the event occurrence time is also determined with the accuracy of ± 0.1 year (90th percentile) according to Fig. 5.
In the case of GNSSA (σ = 1.5 cm, f = 4–6 times/year), when the threshold of –ΔcAIC is set to 10, the false negative rate for the event size of 4.5–6.0 cm is 0.7–0.2 by 6year observation, according to Fig. 4d. False negative rates for 4.5 cm events are high, but false negative rate drops sharply for 6.0 cm. The trend and step are determined with the accuracy of 1.8 cm/year (95%CL) and of 1.5 cm (standard deviation), respectively, according to Fig. 5a, b. For a step signal of 4.5–6.0 cm, the occurrence time of the transient event is determined with the accuracy of ± 0.5 years (90th percentile), according to Fig. 5c.
Even in this case, the false negative rate and the determination accuracy are improved depending on the positioning accuracy and observation frequency. For example, increasing the GNSSA observation frequency to about 50 times/year (weekly) improves the false negative rate for 2σ (3.0 cm) events (Fig. 4d).
Although not covered in this study, the event duration is estimated from two unknown parameters, the occurrence time and the end time of the transient event. Therefore, the determination accuracy of the duration is always worse than that of the occurrence time.
Table 2 shows that dailyGNSS can detect all types of phenomena considered in this study to the < 1 cm or < 1 cm/year level accurately with less than one year of data. On the other hand, in the case of GNSSA, a 1 cm/yearlevel secular crustal deformation rate can be detected by longterm observation (more than 4 years), but about 5 cm is the transient event detection limit. By increasing the observation frequency by an order of magnitude, the detection capability is significantly improved. The development of sea surface platform technology will contribute to raising future observation targets in seafloor geodetic observations. Since the detection capability changes simply in proportion to the standard deviation of GNSSA data, it is also necessary to improve the positioning accuracy of GNSSA.
4.2 Slip of detectability around the Japan Trench and the Nankai Trough
Japanese government agencies have built a basic observation network for earthquakes and secular crustal deformations and are conducting regular observations to contribute disaster prevention. Japan Coast Guard has established the GNSSA observation array, SGOA, around the Japan Trench and the Nankai Trough to carry out regular observations in order to understand the subduction zone and the megathrust earthquake (Fig. 6). Manned vessels have been used in SGOA, and the present detection capability is as discussed in Sect. 4.1. It is necessary to understand the present spatial detection capability of SGOA in order to consider future SGOA deployment plans and in order to compare detection results with earthquake and SSE detection cases in other observation networks. Therefore, it is important to examine the scale of the phenomena that can be captured by present SGOA ability discussed above. We verified the offshore detectability at the sea region using SGOA compared with a case when using only the terrestrial GNSS network.
4.2.1 Method
Here, the plate boundary model is based on Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al. 2009, 2012). The amounts of deformations on the surface are calculated using the Green’s function (GF) which is calculated by the method of (Okada 1992) under the homogeneous elastic halfspace condition. We divided the plate boundary into 20 km square grids and gave a slip of 20 cm to 5 m for each grid, because a subseafloor event scale to be detected is from about 20 cm (SSE, etc.) to several meters (Tohoku earthquake, etc.). Since Okada’s method applies uniform slip on a given grid square, we cannot discuss spatial difference below 20 km by this numerical experiment. The dip and the strike angle of each grid follow the plate boundary model. The slip angle was fixed at 90 degrees. The GF was calculated considering the seafloor depth of each site. For seismological applications, it is convenient to express the scale of the event in terms of the moment magnitude M_{w}. However, M_{w} depends on many parameters, i.e., rigidity, amount of slip and fault size. Although some scaling laws for slip and fault size have been proposed for regular earthquakes, it is not clear for SSEs. Therefore, we evaluated the slip amount instead of the moment magnitude. Based on our test result, detection thresholds for a secular crustal deformation were set to 5 mm and 5 cm for the GEONET sites and the SGOA sites, respectively.
4.2.2 Result
Figure 6 shows the minimum slip in each plate boundary grid that can be detected by the present observation sites. Figure 6a shows that a slip under 1.0 m cannot be detected in a broad subseafloor area (approximately half of the seafloor area considered here) in the case using only the terrestrial network. The results including the seafloor sites indicate improvement of the sensitivity; slips of about 0.2–1.0 m can be detected within a range of about 20–30 km around the seafloor sites along the Nankai Trough (Fig. 6b). Since the plate boundary is far from the seafloor on the Japan Trench side, an interplate slip of 0.2 m cannot be detected, but the detection sensitivity of a secular crustal deformation of 1.0 m or less is improved as in the Nankai Trough. These results suggest that secular crustal deformations due to subseafloor slips of about 0.2–1.0 m or more in a range of about 100 km or more away from the land area can be detected only by SGOA.
4.2.3 Discussion
With the present SGOA capability, only a slip of 0.2–1.0 m or more near the seafloor site (within 20–30 km) can be detected. To detect smaller events and detail physical processes, e.g., spatiotemporal developments of SSEs and postseismic deformations, it is necessary not only to improve the positioning accuracy and observation frequency, but also to add observation sites. An array with higher spatial coverage will allow us to analyze the location and physical process of slip events more accurately.
Brightly colored areas in Fig. 6b can also be thought of as a visualization of the present observation blank area of SGOA. The blank areas are distributed on the west (132–134E) and east (137–138E) sides in the Nankai Trough source region and neartrench area along the Japan Trench. The present SGOA can additionally detect a slip event of larger than 1.0 m occurred in onethird of the offshore blank area for the GEONET’s detection coverage (Fig. 6a) along the Nankai Trough. However, there remains a large blank area near the Nankai Trough. These areas correspond to around the predicted source regions of future large earthquakes on the Nankai Trough side and the area with high slow earthquake activities. Also, along the Japan Trench, the blank areas correspond to around source regions of historical earthquakes. When planning the future expansion of the observation array, it is effective to consider these results and to install sites in locations where the detection capability of slip events can be improved.
5 Conclusion
We examined the event detection capability of the present GNSSA time series data using statistical methods. We arranged the detection capability of crustal velocity, size and timing of geophysical events in Table 2. In addition to the detection capability of the present lowfrequency and lowaccuracy time series data by vesselGNSSA, we also examined the detection capability for higher observation frequency and positioning accuracy, which may be realized in the future. By constructing SGOA, it is possible to detect slips of 1.0 m or less near the seafloor site with the step signal detection threshold of 5 cm. The result of this study quantitatively demonstrates the effectiveness of SGOA for improving the detection capability of various geophysical phenomena due to the seismic cycle of megathrust earthquake.
Availability of data and materials
The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is included within the article.
Abbreviations
 AIC:

Akaike’s information criterion
 CL:

Confidence level
 GEONET:

GNSS Earth Observation NETwork system
 GNSS:

Global Navigation Satellite System
 GNSSA:

GNSS–acoustic combination system
 GF:

Green’s function
 SGOA:

Seafloor geodetic observation array
 SSE:

Slow slip event
References
Akaike H (1974) A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans Auto Control 19:716–723. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705
Asada A, Yabuki T (2001) Centimeterlevel positioning on the seafloor. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B 77:7–12
Foster JH, Ericksen TL, Bingham B (2020) Wave gliderenhanced vertical seafloor geodesy. J Atmos Ocean Tech 37(3):417–427. https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECHD190095.1
Fujita M, Ishikawa T, Mochizuki M, Sato M, Toyama S, Katayama M, Matsumoto Y, Yabuki T, Asada A, Colombo OL (2006) GPS/Acoustic seafloor geodetic observation: method of data analysis and its application. Earth Planets Space 58:265–275. https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351923
Iinuma T, Kido M, Ohta Y, Fukuda T, Tomita F, Ueki I (2021) GNSSAcoustic observations of seafloor crustal deformation using a wave glider. Front Earth Sci 9:600946. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2021.600946
Ishikawa T, Yokota Y, Watanabe S, Nakamura Y (2020) History of onboard equipment improvement for GNSSA observation with focus on observation frequency. Front Earth Sci 8:150. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.00150
Kinugasa N, Tadokoro K, Kato T, Terada Y (2020) Estimation of temporal and spatial variation of sound speed in ocean from GNSSA measurements for observation using moored buoy. Pro Earth Planet Sci 7:21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645020003315
Koketsu K, Miyake H, Afnimar TY (2009) A proposal for a standard procedure of modeling 3D velocity structures and its application to the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. Tectonophysics 472(1–4):290–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2008.05.037
Koketsu K, Miyake H, Suzuki H (2012) Japan integrated velocity structure model version 1. In: Proceedings of the 15th world conference on earthquake engineering (1773). Lisbon
Nakagawa H, Toyofuku T, Kotani K, Miyahara B, Iwashita C, Kawamoto S, Hatanaka Y, Munekane H, Ishimoto M, Yutsudo T, Ishikura N, Sugawara Y (2009) Development and validation of GEONET new analysis strategy (Version 4). J Geograph Surv Inst 118:1–8
Okada Y (1992) Internal deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a halfspace. Bull Seism Soc Am 82:1018–1040
Sato M, Ishikawa T, Ujihara N, Yoshida S, Fujita M, Mochizuki M, Asada A (2011) Displacement above the hypocenter of the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake. Science 332:1395. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1207401
Schmalzle GM, McCaffrey R, Creager KC (2014) Central Cascadia subduction zone creep. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 15:1515–1532. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GC005172
Spiess FN (1985) Suboceanic geodetic measurements. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 23:502–510. https://doi.org/10.1080/15210608509379536
Student (1908) The probable error of a mean. Biometrika 6(1):1–25. https://doi.org/10.2307/2331554
Sugiura N (1978) Further analysis of the data by Akaike’s information criterion and the finite corrections. Commun Stat 7:13–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/03610927808827599
Suito H (2016) Detectability of interplate fault slip around Japan, based on GEONET daily solution F3. J Geod Soc Jpn 62(3):109–120. https://doi.org/10.11366/sokuchi.62.109
Tadokoro K, Kinugasa N, Kato T, Terada Y, Matsuhiro K (2020) A marinebuoymounted system for continuous and realtime measurment of seafloor crustal deformation. Front Earth Sci 8:123. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.00123
Watanabe S, Sato M, Fujita M, Ishikawa T, Yokota Y, Ujihara N, Asada A (2014) Evidence of viscoelastic deformation following the 2011 TohokuOki earthquake revealed from seafloor geodetic observation. Geophys Res Lett 41:5789–5796. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061134
Watanabe S, Ishikawa T, Yokota Y, Nakamura Y (2020) GARPOS: Analysis software for the GNSSA seafloor positioning with simultaneous estimation of sound speed structure. Front Earth Sci 8:597532. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.597532
Watanabe S, Ishikawa T, Nakamura Y, Yokota Y (2021) Co and postseismic slip behaviors extracted from decadal seafloor geodesy after the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake. Earth Planets Space 73:162. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623021014870
Wessel PL, Luis JF, Uieda L, Scharroo R, Wobbe F, Smith WHF, Tian D (2019) The generic mapping tools version 6. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 20:5556–5564. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GC008515
Williamson AL, Newman AV (2018) Limitations of the resolvability of finitefault models using static landbased geodesy and openocean tsunami waveforms. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 123:9033–9048. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JB016091
Yokota Y, Ishikawa T, Watanabe S, Tashiro T, Asada A (2016) Seafloor geodetic constraints on interplate coupling of the Nankai Trough megathrust zone. Nature 534:374–377. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17632
Yokota Y, Ishikawa T, Watanabe S (2018) Seafloor crustal deformation data along the subduction zones around Japan obtained by GNSSA observations. Sci Data 5:180182. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.182
Yokota Y, Ishikawa T, Watanabe S (2019) Gradient field of undersea sound speed structure extracted from the GNSSA oceanography. Mar Geophys Res 40:493–504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1100101893627
Yokota Y, Ishikawa T (2019) Gradient field of undersea sound speed structure extracted from the GNSSA oceanography: GNSSA as a sensor for detecting sound speed gradient. SN Appl Sci 1:693. https://doi.org/10.1007/s4245201906996
Yokota Y, Ishikawa T (2020) Shallow slow slip events along the Nankai Trough detected by GNSSA. Sci Adv 6:eaay5786. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay5786
Yokota Y, Ishikawa T, Watanabe S, Nakamura Y (2020) Kilometerscale sound speed structure that affects GNSSA observation: case study off the Kii channel. Front Earth Sci 8:331. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.00331
Yoshioka S, Matsuoka Y (2013) Interplate coupling along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, inferred from inversion analyses of GPS data: effects of subducting plate geometry and spacing of hypothetical oceanbottom GPS stations. Tectonophysics 600:165–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2013.01.023
Funding
This study was supported by ERI JURP 2021YKOBO25 in Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo.
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
TI and YY proposed the topic and constructed the accuracy verification test method. TI, YN and YY performed the accuracy verification test. SW, YN and YY performed the spatial detection test. TI and YY wrote a manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Corresponding author
Ethics declarations
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Additional information
Publisher's Note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Yokota, Y., Ishikawa, T., Watanabe, Si. et al. Crustal deformation detection capability of the GNSSA seafloor geodetic observation array (SGOA), provided by Japan Coast Guard. Prog Earth Planet Sci 8, 63 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645021004534
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645021004534
Keywords
 GNSSA
 SGOA
 Seafloor geodetic observation
 Earthquake detection limit
 SSE detection limit