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Fig. 5 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 5

From: Lightning detection on Venus: a critical review

Fig. 5

A single (multiple) lightning flash recorded by the C/NOFS satellite on Earth in multiple ways that have only separately been seen on Venus. Three brief optical flashes (top) are recorded, the first near-synchronous with a stroke detection by the ground-based VLF World-Wide Lightning Network (WWLN), shown in the red line. Electric field antennas on the satellite then showed a waveform (middle) that can be decomposed in the spectrogram (bottom) into whistlers in the VLF range (kHz to 10 s of kHz), similar to the VLF noise recorded by the Venera landers, and ELF waves of a few hundred Hertz (which may be whistler-mode) in the ionospheric plasma, similar to those recorded by Pioneer Venus and Venus Express. Figure courtesy Bob Holzworth

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