TIME-GCM response to convective activity over Brazil. (a) F2 plasma frequency perturbation (foF2′ in megahertz), (b) TEC perturbation (in TECU), (c) hmF2 perturbation (in kilometer), and (d) hmF2 altitude (in kilometer). These quantities are shown every 2 h from 22:30 to 28:30 UT, as labeled. 1 TECU = 1016 electrons m−2. The contour lines are separated by 0.1 MHz, 0.2 TECU, 5 km, and 20 km in panels a to d, respectively. Note that panels a to c show the perturbed minus the unperturbed TIME-GCM solutions, while panel d shows only the perturbed TIME-GCM solution. Adapted with permission from Vadas and Liu (2013).