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Table 2 Water masses previously reported from the Okinawa Trough and the Pacific Ocean

From: Characterization of water masses around the southern Ryukyu Islands based on isotopic compositions

Water masses Depth Pot. Temp. (°C) Salinity σθ (kg/m3) εNd References
Pacific Ocean
Surface Water 0–50 26.3–28.71 > 34.78 > 22.48 − 3.5 to − 2.0 Amakawa et al. (2004b), Wu (2014), Behrens et al. (2018)
North Pacific Tropical Water 61–250 18.67–24.50 34.75–35.25 24.0–24.5 − 3.1 to − 2.1 Behrens et al. (2018)
Western North Pacific Central Water 250–400 8.5–17.5 34.10–34.80 25.3–26.5 − 3.7 to − 3.2 Nakamura (1996), Talley et al. (2011), Behrens et al. (2018)
North Pacific Intermediate Water 500–700 5.13–8.22 34.15–34.4 26.5–27.2 − 3.3 to − 2.6 Wang and Chen (1998), Qu et al. (1999), Chen (2005), Behrens et al. (2018)
Pacific Deep Water > 2000 1.55–2.1 34.6–34.7 27.6 − 6.0 to − 2.8 Amakawa et al. (2004b), Talley (2008), Amakawa et al. (2013), Behrens et al. (2018)
Upper Circumpolar Deep Water, southern Pacific 3000–4000 1.6–2.1 34.6–34.7 27.55–28 − 6.5 to − 4.6 Talley (2008), Kawabe and Fujio (2010), Amakawa et al. 2013)
South China
South China Sea Surface Water 0–10 24.9–26.3 33.9–34.4 27.55 − 4.5 to − 2.9 Wu (2014), Japan Oceanographic Data Center (2021)
South China Sea Intermediate Water 500–600 7.43–8.38 34.38–34.43 26.25–27.0 − 4.1 to − 3.6 Wu (2014), Japan Oceanographic Data Center (2021)
Okinawa Trough
Kuroshio Surface Water 0–75 14–30.2 34.2–35.1 22.85 Ichikawa and Chaen (2000), Qi et al. (2014), Zuo et al. (2019)
Kuroshio Tropical Water 100–300 17–25 34.85–35.1 23.5–24 Chen (2005), Ichikawa and Chaen (2000),Yang et al. (2015)
Kuroshio Intermediate Water 400–800 5–13 34.1–34.4 26.5–26.77 Chen, (2005), Ichikawa and Chaen (2000), Yang et al. (2015), Zuo et al. (2019)