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Table 1 Characterization of the water masses in the southern Ryukyu Island Arc. *Only one data available

From: Characterization of water masses around the southern Ryukyu Islands based on isotopic compositions

  Depth T (°C) Salinity σθ (kg m−3) δD (‰, average) δ18O (‰, average) εNd
Okinawa Trough side
Kuroshio Surface Water < 100 23.4–28.2 34.47–34.78 < 23.0 4.5* 0.5* − 2.2
Kuroshio Tropical Water 100–200 18.6–24.1 34.81–34.88 23.5–24.6 3.6 0.4 − 5.3 to − 5.2
Western North Pacific Central Water 250–500 10.0–18.6 34.32–34.82 25.0–26.4 3.1 0.4 − 6.2 to − 2.8
Kuroshio Intermediate Water 500–755 5.8–9.0 34.29–34.36 26.5–27.0 1.0 0.2 − 5.1 to − 4.8
Deeper Kuroshio Intermediate Water 755–1900 3.6–5.7 34.36–34.48 27.0–27.5 0.4 0.0 − 8.2 to − 4.9
Deep water 1900–1938 2.0 34.63 > 27.5
Pacific side
Surface water < 83 24.5–28.6 34.31–34.74 < 23.0 3.3 0.4 − 1.7 to − 1.2
North Pacific Tropical Water 99–216 19.3–24.6 34.67–34.90 23.5–24.7 3.4 0.4 − 4.1 to − 1.1
Western North Pacific Central Water 222–476 11.2–18.9 34.37–34.82 24.9–26.0 3.1 0.4 − 5.2 to − 3.4
North Pacific Intermediate Water 478–863 4.9–11.4 34.18–34.39 26.3–27.2 1.3 0.1 − 7.0 to − 3.8
Deeper North Pacific Intermediate Water 864–1851 2.2–4.9 34.40–34.61 27.2–27.6 0.5 0.1 − 4.0
Pacific Deep Water 1907–2620 1.7–2.1 34.59–34.64 > 27.7 0.7 0.0 − 5.3