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Table 2 A summary of the cliff landslide experiments

From: Experiments on seepage-triggered cliff landslides using cohesive wet sand

Run

H (cm)

\(H / H_{\mathrm{max}}\)

L (cm)

H/L

\(\phi\)

S

\(h_{\mathrm{w}}\) (cm)

\(h_{\mathrm{w}} / H\)

Result

Images, movies

1

20.5

0.62

13.5

1.52

0.52

0.31

5.0

0.24

2 slides \(+\) spread

2

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.53

0.30

2.0

0.10

No slide

3

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.51

0.55

3.0

0.15

2 slides

4

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.50

0.39

2.0

0.10

1 slide

Fig. 5

5

19.5

0.59

13.5

1.44

0.50

0.33

10.0

0.51

2 slides \(+\) spread

6

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.51

0.14

6.0

0.30

2 slides \(+\) spread

7

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.51

0.40

15.0

0.75

1 slide \(+\) flooding

Fig. 3a

8

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.50

0.31

2.0

0.10

No slide

Fig. 4

9

12.5

0.38

13.5

0.93

0.49

0.29

2.0

0.16

1 slide\(^{\dagger }\)

Fig. 8a

10

12.0

0.36

13.5

0.89

0.51

0.36

2.0

0.17

1 slide

11

12.0

0.36

13.5

0.89

0.53

0.29

6.0

0.50

3 slides \(+\) spread

12

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.51

0.31

13.0

0.65

1 slide \(+\) flooding

Fig. 7 and Additional file 3: Movie S3

13

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.51

0.37

1.8

0.09

1 slide

Figs. 3a, 8a and Additional file 1: Movie S1

14

20.0

0.60

13.5

1.48

0.50

0.27

8.0

0.40

2 slides \(+\) spread

Figs. 3a, 6 and Additional file 2: Movie S2

15

16.0

0.48

13.5

1.19

0.50

0.32

2.0

0.13

No slide

16

8.0

0.24

13.5

0.59

0.50

0.28

2.0

0.25

3 slides \(+\) spread

17

4.0

0.12

13.5

0.30

0.51

0.26

2.0

0.50

1 slide \(+\) spread

Fig. 8a

18

12.6

0.38

8.5

1.48

0.51

0.36

5.7

0.45

3 slides \(+\) spread

  1. H: cliff height, \(H_{\mathrm{max}} = 33\) cm is obtained from Eq. (3), L: cliff length. The cliff width W is \(W = 35\) cm
  2. \(\phi\): packing fraction of sand particles. Average ± standard deviation: \(\phi = 0.51 \pm 0.01\)
  3. S: water saturation in pore space. Average ± standard deviation: \(S = 0.32 \pm 0.08\)
  4. \(h_{\mathrm{w}}\): Hydraulic head. \(\dagger\): sensor data acquisition stopped during the run (\(\times\) in Fig. 9a)