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Table 2 A summary of the cliff landslide experiments

From: Experiments on seepage-triggered cliff landslides using cohesive wet sand

Run H (cm) \(H / H_{\mathrm{max}}\) L (cm) H/L \(\phi\) S \(h_{\mathrm{w}}\) (cm) \(h_{\mathrm{w}} / H\) Result Images, movies
1 20.5 0.62 13.5 1.52 0.52 0.31 5.0 0.24 2 slides \(+\) spread
2 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.53 0.30 2.0 0.10 No slide
3 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.51 0.55 3.0 0.15 2 slides
4 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.50 0.39 2.0 0.10 1 slide Fig. 5
5 19.5 0.59 13.5 1.44 0.50 0.33 10.0 0.51 2 slides \(+\) spread
6 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.51 0.14 6.0 0.30 2 slides \(+\) spread
7 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.51 0.40 15.0 0.75 1 slide \(+\) flooding Fig. 3a
8 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.50 0.31 2.0 0.10 No slide Fig. 4
9 12.5 0.38 13.5 0.93 0.49 0.29 2.0 0.16 1 slide\(^{\dagger }\) Fig. 8a
10 12.0 0.36 13.5 0.89 0.51 0.36 2.0 0.17 1 slide
11 12.0 0.36 13.5 0.89 0.53 0.29 6.0 0.50 3 slides \(+\) spread
12 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.51 0.31 13.0 0.65 1 slide \(+\) flooding Fig. 7 and Additional file 3: Movie S3
13 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.51 0.37 1.8 0.09 1 slide Figs. 3a, 8a and Additional file 1: Movie S1
14 20.0 0.60 13.5 1.48 0.50 0.27 8.0 0.40 2 slides \(+\) spread Figs. 3a, 6 and Additional file 2: Movie S2
15 16.0 0.48 13.5 1.19 0.50 0.32 2.0 0.13 No slide
16 8.0 0.24 13.5 0.59 0.50 0.28 2.0 0.25 3 slides \(+\) spread
17 4.0 0.12 13.5 0.30 0.51 0.26 2.0 0.50 1 slide \(+\) spread Fig. 8a
18 12.6 0.38 8.5 1.48 0.51 0.36 5.7 0.45 3 slides \(+\) spread
  1. H: cliff height, \(H_{\mathrm{max}} = 33\) cm is obtained from Eq. (3), L: cliff length. The cliff width W is \(W = 35\) cm
  2. \(\phi\): packing fraction of sand particles. Average ± standard deviation: \(\phi = 0.51 \pm 0.01\)
  3. S: water saturation in pore space. Average ± standard deviation: \(S = 0.32 \pm 0.08\)
  4. \(h_{\mathrm{w}}\): Hydraulic head. \(\dagger\): sensor data acquisition stopped during the run (\(\times\) in Fig. 9a)