Skip to main content

Table 1 Notation

From: Experiments on seepage-triggered cliff landslides using cohesive wet sand

A Growth rate of vertical velocity (\(1/\text{s }\))
a Acceleration (\(\text{ m/s}^2\))
c Cohesion (Pa)
\(c'\) Effective cohesion (Pa)
d Particle diameter (m)
\(F_{\mathrm{s}}\) Factor of safety
g Gravitational acceleration (\(\text{ m/s}^2\))
H Cliff height (m)
\(H_{\mathrm{max}}\) Maximum cliff height (m)
h Height of phreatic surface (m)
\(h_{\mathrm{c}}\) Capillary rise (m)
\(h_{\mathrm{w}}\) Hydraulic head (m)
\(K_{\mathrm{p}}\) Coefficient of passive earth pressure
k Permeability (\(\text{ m}^2\))
L Cliff length (m)
\(L_{\mathrm{head}}\) Landslide head length of first slide (m)
S Water saturation in pore space
\(T_{\mathrm{seep}}\) Seepage time (s)
\(T_{\mathrm{slide}}\) Slide time (s)
t Time (s)
u Pore water pressure (Pa)
v Velocity (m/s)
W Cliff width (m)
\(\gamma\) Surface tension coefficient (N/m)
\(\Delta z\) Vertical displacement (m)
\(\eta\) Viscosity of water (Pa s)
\(\theta\) Friction angle (\(^{\circ }\))
\(\Lambda\) Inverse velocity \(= 1 /v\) (s/m)
\(\mu\) Friction coefficient
\(\mu '\) Effective friction coefficient
\(\rho\) Bulk density of wet sand (\(\text{ kg/m}^3\))
\(\rho _{\mathrm{s}}\) Density of sand (\(\text{ kg/m}^3\))
\(\rho _{\mathrm{w}}\) Density of water (\(\text{ kg/m}^3\))
\(\sigma\) Total normal stress (Pa)
\(\sigma _{\mathrm{z}}\) Total vertical stress (Pa)
\(\sigma '\) Effective stress (Pa)
\(\tau\) Shear stress (Pa)
\(\tau _{\mathrm{s}}\) Shear strength (Pa)
\(\tau _{\mathrm{y}}\) Yield stress (Pa)
\(\phi\) Particle volumetric packing fraction