Skip to main content
# Table 1 Notation

From: Experiments on seepage-triggered cliff landslides using cohesive wet sand

A
| Growth rate of vertical velocity (\(1/\text{s }\)) |

a
| Acceleration (\(\text{ m/s}^2\)) |

c
| Cohesion (Pa) |

\(c'\) | Effective cohesion (Pa) |

d
| Particle diameter (m) |

\(F_{\mathrm{s}}\) | Factor of safety |

g
| Gravitational acceleration (\(\text{ m/s}^2\)) |

H
| Cliff height (m) |

\(H_{\mathrm{max}}\) | Maximum cliff height (m) |

h
| Height of phreatic surface (m) |

\(h_{\mathrm{c}}\) | Capillary rise (m) |

\(h_{\mathrm{w}}\) | Hydraulic head (m) |

\(K_{\mathrm{p}}\) | Coefficient of passive earth pressure |

k
| Permeability (\(\text{ m}^2\)) |

L
| Cliff length (m) |

\(L_{\mathrm{head}}\) | Landslide head length of first slide (m) |

S
| Water saturation in pore space |

\(T_{\mathrm{seep}}\) | Seepage time (s) |

\(T_{\mathrm{slide}}\) | Slide time (s) |

t
| Time (s) |

u
| Pore water pressure (Pa) |

v
| Velocity (m/s) |

W
| Cliff width (m) |

\(\gamma\) | Surface tension coefficient (N/m) |

\(\Delta z\) | Vertical displacement (m) |

\(\eta\) | Viscosity of water (Pa s) |

\(\theta\) | Friction angle (\(^{\circ }\)) |

\(\Lambda\) | Inverse velocity \(= 1 /v\) (s/m) |

\(\mu\) | Friction coefficient |

\(\mu '\) | Effective friction coefficient |

\(\rho\) | Bulk density of wet sand (\(\text{ kg/m}^3\)) |

\(\rho _{\mathrm{s}}\) | Density of sand (\(\text{ kg/m}^3\)) |

\(\rho _{\mathrm{w}}\) | Density of water (\(\text{ kg/m}^3\)) |

\(\sigma\) | Total normal stress (Pa) |

\(\sigma _{\mathrm{z}}\) | Total vertical stress (Pa) |

\(\sigma '\) | Effective stress (Pa) |

\(\tau\) | Shear stress (Pa) |

\(\tau _{\mathrm{s}}\) | Shear strength (Pa) |

\(\tau _{\mathrm{y}}\) | Yield stress (Pa) |

\(\phi\) | Particle volumetric packing fraction |