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Table 8 Temperature and precipitation conditions during the MCA

From: The response of the hydrological cycle to temperature changes in recent and distant climatic history

Study site Hemisphere Zone Time T P Citation(s)
N. Hemisphere NH 0 800–1400 Warm Dry Ljungqvist et al. (2016)
Asia NH M-L 900–1300 0 Dry Chen et al. (2015)
N. America NH M-L 1197–1289 0 Dry Cook et al. (2014)
    And 1486–1581    Parish et al. (2020)
N. America NH M-L 1140–1162 0 Dry Cook et al. (2007)
N. America NH M-L 800–1400 Warm 0 Woodhouse et al. (2010)
N. America NH M-L 800–1400 Warm 0 Lamb (1965)
Europe NH M-L 800–1400 Warm 0 Lamb (1965)
N. Europe NH M-L 800–1400 0 Dry Cook et al. (2015)
S. Asia NH M-L 1230–1250
and 1380–1410
0 Wet Li et al. (1987)
E. Asia NH M-L 1300 0 Dry Lan et al. (2020)
NW. Europe NH M-L 1200–1300 Warm 0 Guiot (1992)
S. America (NE area) SH L-L 800–1400 0 Wet Thompson et al. (2013)
Western N. America NH M-L 900–1300 Warm Dry Woodhouse et al. (2010)
Western N. America NH M-L 1030–1100 0 Wet Mauquoy et al. (2004)
Western N. America NH M-L 650–1050 0 Dry Parish et al. (2020)
Western N. America NH M-L 900–1300 0 Dry Cook et al. (2007)
E. Africa NH M-L 800–1400 0 Dry Verschuren et al. (2000)
S. Atlantic SH M-L 800–1400 Warm 0 Jones and Mann (2004)
N. Pacific NH M-L 800–1400 Warm 0 Mann et al. (2009)
China NH M-L 800–1400 Warm 0 Yang et al. (2002)
S. China NH M-L 800–1400 0 Dry Chen et al. (2015)
S. China NH M-L 1140–1220
and 1420–1490
0 Dry Li et al. (1987)
NE. China NH M-L 950–1290 0 Wet Ren (1998)
Southern Amazonia SH L-L 800–1400 0 Dry Thompson et al. (2013)
Peru SH L-L 800–1250 0 Dry Rein et al. (2004)
Morocco NH M-L 1250–1300 0 Wet Till et al. (1990)
Central America NH M-L 950–1250 0 Wet Stansell et al. (2013)
Spain (Sierra Nevada) NH M-L 800–859,
1020–1070,
1197–1217,
And 1249–1365
0 Dry Graumlich (1993)
Venezuela NH L-L 950–1450 0 Wet Haug et al. (2001)
Arizona, USA NH M-L 700–1350 0 Wet Hughes and Diaz (1994)
California, USA NH M-L 1080–1129 0 Wet Hughes and Diaz (1994)
Iberian Peninsula NH M-L 800–1400 Warm Dry Moreno et al. (2012)
Central Peruvian Andes SH L-L 900–1100 0 Dry Bird et al. (2011)
Alps NH M-L twelfth century Warm 0 Trachsel et al. (2012)
  1. NH Northern Hemisphere, SH Southern Hemisphere, H-L High-latitudes, M-L Mid-latitudes, L-L Low-latitudes. Period units are in AD and average age uncertainty for the MCA is ± 100 years