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Table 1 Temperature and precipitation conditions during the MMCO

From: The response of the hydrological cycle to temperature changes in recent and distant climatic history

Study site Hemisphere Zone Period T P Citation(s)
Global NH/SH 0 17–14.5 Warm 0 You et al. (2009)
Pound et al. (2012)
Steinthorsdottir et al. (2020)
N. Hemisphere NH M-L 17–14.5 Warm Dry Böhme et al. (2007);
Bruch et al. (2007); You (2010) Zachos et al. (2001)
N. Hemisphere NH H-L 17–14.5 Warm Dry Böhme et al. (2007)
Bruch et al. (2007), You (2010), Zachos et al. (2001)
Deep Ocean NH H-L 17–14.5 Warm 0 Haq (1973), Miller et al. (1991)
Zachos et al. (2008)
S. Hemisphere SH H-L 17–14.5 Warm Wet You (2010), Feakins et al. (2012)
Asia NH M-L 17–14.5 0 Dry Jiang and Ding (2010)
Liu et al. (2009)
Africa NH L-L 17–14.5 0 Dry Retallack (1992)
Levin et al. (2006)
Eronen et al. (2012)
Morales-García et al. (2020)
Antarctica SH H-L 17–14.5 Warm Wet You (2010); Feakins et al. (2012)
S. America SH L-L 17–14.5 0 Dry Pascual and Jaureguizar (1990)
N. America NH M-L 20–14.5 Warm Wet Kennett (1994); Retallack (2007)
Fox and Koch (2004); Henrot et al. (2010) Herold et al. (2011)
N. America NH M-L 17–14.5 0 Dry Wolfe (1985) Chamberlain et al. (2014)
Europe NH M-L 17–14.5 0 Wet Böhme et al. (2007); Methner et al. (2020)
Kuhlemann and Kempf (2002)
Schlunegger et al. (1996)
Australia SH M-L 17–14.5 0 Dry Stein and Robert (1985)
Byrne et al. (2008)
Wu et al. (2018)
N. Eurasia NH H-L 21–14.5 Warm Wet Kennett (1994); Retallack (2007)
Fox and Koch (2004); Henrot et al. (2010) Herold et al. (2011)
Central Africa NH L-L 19–14.5 Warm Wet Kennett (1994); Retallack (2007)
Fox and Koch (2004); Henrot et al. (2010) Herold et al. (2011)
N. Africa NH M-L 18–14.5 Warm Wet Kennett (1994); Retallack (2007)
Fox and Koch (2004); Henrot et al. (2010) Herold et al. (2011)
Northern S. America SH L-L 17–14.5 0 Wet Scholz et al. (2020)
China NH M-L 17–14.5 Warm Wet Sun and Zhang (2008)
Song et al. (2018)
Steininger (1999)
Wan et al. (2007)
Clift et al. (2014)
Greenland NH H-L 21–14.5 Warm Wet Kennett (1994); Retallack (2007)
Fox and Koch (2004); Henrot et al. (2010) Herold et al. (2011)
E. Idaho, USA NH M-L 17–14.5 0 Dry Harris et al. (2020)
N. Pakistan NH M-L 17–14.5 0 Dry Allen and Armstrong (2012)
Alaska Range, Alaska NH H-L 18–14 Warm 0 Leopold and Denton (1987)
  1. NH Northern Hemisphere, SH Southern Hemisphere, H-L High-latitudes, M-L Mid-latitudes, L-L Low-latitudes. Period units are in million years BP and average age uncertainty is ± 1 million years