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Table 1 Four types of Earth-affecting solar transients and their key physical processes and geoeffectiveness

From: Earth-affecting solar transients: a review of progresses in solar cycle 24

Earth-affecting solar transients Key physical processes Effects on near-earth space environment Effects on technological system and life
Solar flares Magnetic reconnection; ideal MHD instability; particle acceleration; plasma heating Disturbances in the ionosphere; heating and expansion of upper atmosphere High-frequency radio communication; satellite drag (Earth climate from long-term variation of solar irradiance)
CMEs and ICMEs Ideal MHD instability; flux rope formation; shock formation; particle acceleration; aerodynamic drag; CME-CME interaction; magnetic reconnection Geomagnetic storms; substorms; disturbances in the ionosphere; ionosphere scintillations; radiation belt storms GPS systems and navigation; satellite communication; high-frequency radio communication; electric power transmission; satellite degradation and failure (single event upset; dielectric material charging and discharging; surface charging); radiation hazards to astronauts; radiation hazards to aircraft crew and passengers
SEPs Particle acceleration; injection; propagation; turbulence Particle radiation storms Satellite degradation and failure; high-frequency radio communication; radiation hazards to astronauts; atmospheric chemistry
SIRs/CIRs Stream interaction; particle acceleration Substorms; geomagnetic storms Similar to CMEs to a lesser extent