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Table 1 Statistics of XCO2 time series simulations in comparison with GOSAT and OCO-2 measurements. Correlation coefficients are calculated for the mean seasonal cycles of the time series as calculated by harmonic analysis. Mean XCO2 biases are calculated as the differences for the overlapping periods between two data records. The regions are arranged from North to South latitudes within each of the continents and ocean basins, as much as possible

From: Evaluation of earth system model and atmospheric inversion using total column CO2 observations from GOSAT and OCO-2

Region name ACTM_ES2LF–GOSAT (2010–2014) ACTM_InvF–GOSAT (2010–2014) ACTM_InvF–GOSAT (2015–2018) ACTM_InvF–OCO2 (2015–2018)
Seasonal cycle (r) Regional bias (ppm) Seasonal cycle (r) Regional bias (ppm) Seasonal cycle (r) Regional bias (ppm) Seasonal cycle (r) Regional bias (ppm)
Boreal N. America 0.76 0.74 0.89 − 0.09 0.93 0.01 0.97 0.05
Temperate N. America 0.91 − 0.25 0.98 − 0.08 0.95 0.09 0.99 0.03
Tropical America 0.96 − 0.04 0.98 − 0.11 0.96 0.28 0.98 − 0.07
Brazil 0.38 0.60 0.76 0.22 0.65 0.47 0.72 − 0.04
Temperate S. America 0.44 − 0.20 0.84 − 0.31 0.83 0.29 0.89 0.04
Europe 0.93 − 0.16 0.97 − 0.14 0.97 0.08 0.99 − 0.01
Northern Africa 0.91 − 0.08 0.96 0.06 0.97 0.32 0.99 − 0.12
Tropical Africa 0.24 0.50 0.81 0.19 0.69 0.63 0.96 − 0.01
Southern Africa 0.04 0.25 0.91 0.03 0.75 0.31 0.87 0.01
Boreal Asia 0.86 1.00 0.94 − 0.09 0.93 0.03 0.99 − 0.21
West Asia 0.94 − 0.25 0.96 − 0.18 0.96 0.29 0.99 − 0.02
South Asia 0.60 − 0.28 0.84 − 0.46 0.72 − 0.45 0.95 − 0.33
East Asia 0.95 − 0.16 0.95 0.07 0.96 0.34 0.99 − 0.04
Southeast Asia 0.79 0.40 0.83 0.14 0.88 0.48 0.96 0.01
Oceania − 0.19 − 0.42 0.52 − 0.35 0.62 0.29 0.30 0.02
North Pacific 0.92 − 0.17 0.93 − 0.84 0.95 0.06 0.99 − 0.01
West Pacific 0.91 − 0.01 0.94 − 0.19 0.88 0.22 0.93 − 0.03
East Pacific 0.90 − 0.24 0.91 − 0.37 0.80 0.08 0.84 − 0.07
South Pacific 0.75 − 0.05 0.78 − 0.63 0.79 − 0.15 0.71 0.01
Northern Ocean 0.93 − 0.11 0.93 − 0.88 0.93 − 0.57 0.99 − 0.23
North Atlantic 0.89 0.02 0.92 − 0.67 0.90 − 0.19 0.99 − 0.01
Tropical Atlantic 0.63 − 0.23 0.78 − 0.31 0.55 0.08 0.89 − 0.04
South Atlantic 0.65 − 0.52 0.87 − 0.77 0.91 − 0.41 0.85 0.01
Southern Ocean 0.92 − 1.62 0.91 − 0.97 0.68 − 0.49 0.86 0.01
Tropical Indian Ocean 0.93 − 0.10 0.94 − 0.30 0.93 0.10 0.91 0.01
South Indian Ocean 0.39 0.40 0.84 − 0.37 0.87 − 0.14 0.78 0.07
Mean of all regions 0.71 0.04 0.88 0.28 0.84 0.08 0.90 0.04