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Table 1 Various durability estimators reported in the literature

From: A review of theoretical salt weathering studies for stone heritage


Durability estimator

Parameters used in durability estimation

Comments (merits and demerits for determination of index)

Richardson (1991)

Durability factor, \( D={C}_s^2P \)

Saturation coefficient (Cs) and total porosity (P)

For determination of this index, only easy-measurement parameter (porosity) of solid (rocks) is enough, although chemical analysis of saline solution is necessary.

Moh'd et al. (1996)

Durability estimator, x = [(P. Pmircro)Cs]0.5

Total porosity (P), microporosity (Pmicro), and saturation coefficient (Cs)

Fairly complex methods (determination of pore size distribution and chemical analysis of saline solution) are necessary.

Matsukura and Matsuoka (1996)

Weathering susceptibility index, \( WSI=\frac{P_c}{S_t} \)

Calculated crystallization pressure based on pore size distribution and pore radius (Pc) and tensile strength (St)

No chemical analyses for saline solution but strength test of solids (rocks) are necessary. The parameter can consider variable tensile strength of rocks.

Ordóñez et al. (1997)

Durability dimension estimator, \( DDE=\sum \frac{v(r)}{r}{P}_{conc} \)

Pore size distribution, pore radius (r), and connected porosity (Pconc)

Only one method (porosimetry) is enough to determine this index.

Benavente et al. (2004a)

Petrophysical durability estimator, \( PDE=\frac{X}{\sigma } \)

Estimators based on pore structure (X) and various rock strengths (σ)

It is easy to consider because of simple equation.

Angeli et al. (2007)

Alteration index (AI) estimator,

\( {AI}_{estim}=\ln \left(\frac{100C}{E\sqrt{\sigma_T}}\right) \)

Alteration velocity (AV) estimator, P-wave velocity

AI: Capillary coefficient (C), evaporation coefficient (E), and tensile strength (σT)

AV: P-wave velocity (vp)

This parameter reflects three kinds of conditions (pore size, evaporation, and rock strength) of salt weathering.

Yu and Oguchi (2010a, 2010b)

Salt Susceptibility Index, SSI, SSI = (Ipc + Ipm0.1)(Pms/Pc)

Ipc: Index of total connected porosity

Ipm0.1: Index of microporosity of pores smaller than 0.1 μm in radius

Pms: Total connected porosity

Pc: Microporosity of pores smaller than 5 μm in radius

Only one method (porosimetry) is enough to determine this index.