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Table 2 Mean δ18O (vs VPDB) during mid-Holocene and the last glacial period recorded in Japanese and Chinese caves

From: Stalagmite evidence for East Asian winter monsoon variability and 18O-depleted surface water in the Japan Sea during the last glacial period

  Middle Holocene Last glacial 18OH-G (‰) Reference
δ18Oavr (‰) Interval (ka) δ18Oavr (‰) Interval (ka)
Fukugaguchi − 7.64 4.2–8.2 − 8.87 22–33 + 1.23 This study, Sone et al. (2013)
Maboroshi − 7.29 4.5–8.2 − 6.16 16.0–18.2 − 1.13 Hori et al. (2013)
Kiriana − 5.94 4.3–8.2 − 4.13 22–33 − 1.81 Mori et al. (2018)
Ohtaki − 7.37 4.2–8.2 − 6.72 34.8–36 − 0.65 Mori et al. (2018)
Sambo/Hulua − 10.43 4.2–8.2 − 8.18 22–33 − 2.25 Wang et al. (2001, 2008)
  1. aCollected more positive (+ 1.9 ‰) Hulu value against Sambo value (Wang et al. 2008)