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Table 1 Parameter values for the organic, mineral soil, and base layers used in the improved scheme. The values for the mineral layers are dependent on the soil type. Here, the values of the mineral layers for the “sand” soil type are shown. The layers for the organic (moss and soil), mineral soil, and bed lock layer for the improved and conventional schemes are also shown

From: Model improvement and future projection of permafrost processes in a global land surface model

  Organic (moss) Organic (soil) Mineral Bedrock
Layers in the improved scheme (Tundra) Top layer (0–5 cm) 2nd–3rd layers (5–1 m) 4th–5th layers (1–4 m) Bottom layer (4–14 m)
Layers in the improved scheme (Taiga) Top two layers (0–25 cm) 3rd–4th layers (25 –2m) 5th layer (2–4 m) Bottom layer (4–14 m)
Layers in the original scheme All layers (0–14 m)
Volumetric specific heat [MJ/m3 K] 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.3
Thermal conductivity [W/m K] 0.12 0.25 2.0 3.0
Saturated soil moisture (porosity) [−] 0.8 0.7 0.48 0.3
Saturated hydraulic conductivity 10−6 [m/s] 15 2.0 1.71 5.0
Saturated hydraulic potential [m] − 0.085 − 0.12 − 0.0563 − 0.300
Void size distribution index [−] 2.1 4.0 3.6 3.3