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Table 1 Heat budget across the Earth’s deep interior. Model estimates are taken from Nakagawa and Tackley (2012); Observational constraints are taken from Jaupart et al. (2007). The heat production rate is indicated after excluding the heat production of the continental crust which is typically ~7 TW (see Jaupart et al. 2007). The cooling rate at the core-mantle boundary is represented as the convective cooling rate in the whole mantle

From: A coupled core-mantle evolution: review and future prospects

  Model Observational constraints
Surface heat flow across the oceanic lithosphere ~35 TW 32 TW
Heat flow across the CMB 12 TW 8 TW
Heat production in the silicate mantle (excl. the continental crust) 12.5–28.5 TW 13 TW
Cooling rate at the core-mantle boundary ~70 K/Gyrs 118 K/Gyrs