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Table 1 Subsets of climate simulation experiments in d4PDF under different climate conditions. ΔT in the forth column means differences in past and future climatologies of SST and SIC computed from CMIP5 RCP8.5 experiments by six climate models (CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, HadGEM2-AO, MIROC5, MPI-ESM-MR, and MRI-CGCM3). Two numbers in brackets following ΔT indicate the year range for RCP8.5 SST trend used in the future climate simulation. The baseline of nonwarming SSTs is the climatology for the period from 1900 to 1919

From: d4PDF: large-ensemble and high-resolution climate simulations for global warming risk assessment

Experiment Ensemble members Integration years/period Boundary conditions References
Past 100 From 1951 onward Observed SSTs and SIC Mizuta et al. (2017)
    (Hirahara et al. 2014)  
Nonwarming 100 From 1951 onward Detrended observed SSTs and SIC : \(\delta \intercal \) Mizuta et al. (2017), Kawase et al. (2019)
+1.5 K future 54 29 years*1 \(\delta \intercal \)(2020-2039) + \(\delta \intercal \) Nosaka et al. (2020)
+2 K future 54 60 years \(\delta \intercal \)(2030–2049) + \(\delta \intercal \) Fujita et al. (2019)
+4 K future 90 60 years \(\delta \intercal \)(2080–2099) + \(\delta \intercal \) Mizuta et al. (2017)
  1. *1:the global model was integrated for 32 years