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Table 4 Global annual mean effective radiative forcings of aerosols estimated by different methods and other models

From: Global and Arctic effective radiative forcing of anthropogenic gases and aerosols in MRI-ESM2.0

Model name (Method) SW ERF at TOA LW ERF at TOA NET ERF at TOA
  ARI ACI ALB ARI + ACI ARI ACI ARI + ACI ARI ACI ALB ARI + ACI
  scat abs sum scat + abs amt sum          
MRI-ESM2.0 (G13) --- --- − 0.32 --- --- − 2.47 0.05 − 2.79 0.00 1.49 1.49 − 0.32 − 0.98 0.08 − 1.30
MRI-ESM2.0 (APRP) − 0.76 0.28 − 0.49 − 1.86 − 0.38 − 2.24 − 0.00 − 2.73 0.04 1.48 1.52 − 0.45 − 0.76 --- − 1.21
MRI-CGCM3 (APRP) − 0.11 0.14 0.03 − 2.20 − 0.44 − 2.64 0.04 − 2.60 0.01 1.14 1.15 0.05 − 1.50 --- − 1.46
12 CMIP6 models (APRP) Smith et al. (2020) − 0.59 ± 0.17 0.26 ± 0.12 − 0.33 ± 0.20 − 0.84 ± 0.49 − 0.15 ± 0.26 − 0.99 ± 0.49 --- − 1.33 ± 0.50 0.12 ± 0.06 0.16 ± 0.42 0.27 ± 0.40 − 0.21 ± 0.18 − 0.84 ± 0.30 --- − 1.05 ± 0.22
4 CMIP6 models (G13) Thornhill et al. (2020) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- − 0.17 ± 0.15 − 0.96 ± 0.25 0.05 ± 0.05 − 1.12 ± 0.25
  1. Values estimated by MRI-CGCM3 are the forcings for the year 2000 relative to the year 1850 with CMIP5 emissions and those estimated by MRI-ESM2.0, the 12 CMIP6 models (Smith et al. 2020), and the 4 CMIP6 models (Thornhill et al. 2020) are the forcings at the year 2014 relative to the year 1850 with CMIP6 emissions (the piClim-aer experiment). Values estimated by the CMIP6 models are the multi-model means and standard deviations. All estimates are given in units of W m−2. The ACI of the LW ERF is estimated to be the change in the LW cloud radiative effect, and the ARI of the LW ERF is estimated to be the residual of the total ERF minus the ACI
  2. ERF effective radiative forcing, TOA top of the atmosphere, SW shortwave, LW longwave, NET SW + LW, ARI aerosol-radiation interactions, ACI aerosol-cloud interactions, ALB surface albedo effects, scat scattering, abs absorption, amt cloud amount, G13 the method of Ghan (2013), APRP the approximate partial radiative perturbation (APRP) method of Taylor et al. (2007)