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Table 3 Arctic (60–90°N) annual mean effective radiative forcings and surface air temperatures of each experiment

From: Global and Arctic effective radiative forcing of anthropogenic gases and aerosols in MRI-ESM2.0

Experiment name ERF at TOA ERF at surface SAT
SW LW NET SW LW NET
piClim-ghg 0.89 1.19 2.08 0.18 1.07 1.26 0.41
piClim-4xCO2a 2.51 (0.61) 3.57 (0.86) 6.09 (1.47) − 0.02 (− 0.00) 2.78 (0.67) 2.76 (0.67) 1.25
piClim-CH4 0.02 0.33 0.35 − 0.13 0.29 0.16 0.09
piClim-HC − 0.36 0.42 0.06 − 0.05 0.21 0.16 0.02
piClim-N2O − 0.19 0.13 − 0.07 − 0.08 0.09 0.01 − 0.00
piClim-VOC 0.00 − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.14 0.11 − 0.03 0.04
piClim-NOx 0.55 − 0.23 0.31 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.02 − 0.04
piClim-O3 0.38 − 0.06 0.32 − 0.09 0.11 0.02 0.04
piClim-NTCF − 0.46 0.35 − 0.11 − 1.03 0.40 − 0.63 − 0.09
piClim-aer − 0.85 0.25 − 0.59 − 0.97 0.46 − 0.51 0.03
piClim-BC 0.60 0.01 0.61 0.09 0.36 0.45 0.22
piClim-OC − 0.53 0.23 − 0.29 − 0.50 0.03 − 0.47 − 0.01
piClim-SO2 − 1.19 0.34 − 0.85 − 0.97 0.34 − 0.63 − 0.10
piClim-lu − 0.05 0.06 0.01 0.02 −0.09 − 0.07 − 0.02
piClim-anthro − 0.01 1.95 1.94 − 0.95 1.58 0.63 0.49
  1. SAT values are the differences in the 30-year annual mean values between each experiment and the piClim-control experiment. ERF and SAT values are given in units of W m−2 and K, respectively
  2. ERF effective radiative forcing, TOA top of the atmosphere, SAT surface air temperature, SW shortwave, LW longwave, NET SW + LW, NTCF near-term climate forcers
  3. aValues in parentheses are the ERFs of CO2 at the present-day concentrations as estimated from the piClim-4xCO2 experiment