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Table 1 Parameters estimation for each navigational points. The centroid frequency of the received radar signal, the drift slope of the centroid frequency, the derived loss tangent, and the derived TiO2 + FeO contents at different segments of the LPR data. The uncertainties for all the estimated values are the 95% confidence bounds. The navigation points are shown in Figs. 1c and 5b

From: Compositional variations along the route of Chang’e-3 Yutu rover revealed by the lunar penetrating radar

LPR
segments
Centroid frequency
(ft, MHz)
Frequency drift rate
(\( \Delta {f}_r \),MHz/ns)
Loss tangent
(tanδ)
TiO2 + FeO (wt.%)
N105–N106
N106–N107
N107–N108
N108–N202
N202–N203
N203–N204
N204–N205
N205–N206
N206–N207
N207–N208
504.75 ± 1.22
502.10 ± 1.58
496.52 ± 1.70
510.37 ± 1.40
505.30 ± 1.31
501.44 ± 1.41
498.57 ± 1.38
495.11 ± 2.28
497.40 ± 1.30
501.24 ± 1.74
− 1.623 ± 0.043
− 1.661 ± 0.059
− 1.217 ± 0.066
− 1.653 ± 0.047
− 1.219 ± 0.040
− 1.079 ± 0.044
− 1.128 ± 0.042
− 1.152 ± 0.071
− 1.107 ± 0.043
− 1.536 ± 0.070
0.0162 ± 0.0004
0.0168 ± 0.0005
0.0126 ± 0.0006
0.0162 ± 0.0004
0.0122 ± 0.0003
0.0109 ± 0.0004
0.0116 ± 0.0004
0.0120 ± 0.0006
0.0114 ± 0.0004
0.0156 ± 0.0006
29.54 ± 0.33
30.02 ± 0.44
22.58 ± 0.70
29.48 ± 0.35
25.36 ± 0.41
23.82 ± 0.52
24.63 ± 0.47
25.13 ± 0.77
24.42 ± 0.50
28.94 ± 0.58