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Fig. 14 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 14

From: Bubbles to Chondrites-I. Evaporation and condensation experiments, and formation of chondrules

Fig. 14

a, b and c: schematic representation of bursting of an air bubble in succession (modified after Lhuissier and Villermaux 2012, figure 18). Only the film cap of the bubble is shown. a A pin-hole rupture in the film expands. b The rolled-up film starts to disintegrate into pieces of strings by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. c The instability continues to break up strings into multiple droplets, which is detached and ejected in tangential direction from the original film curvature, called film droplets. d: schematic representation of jet-droplet formation (modified after MacIntyre 1972, figure 1). The succession of profiles are 1/6000 s apart, from label 1 through 10. The pseudo-circle in red indicates a shape of bubble just before the film rupturing. The profile 1 represents the moment the film cap is stowed away into its base perimeter by surface tension. The perimeter (now the edge of the gaping cavity) starts to collapse due to a continuous action of surface tension, generating a capillary wave that travels along the cavity wall to the bottom (profiles 2 through 5). The wave converges in the center to form an upward-moving jet (profiles 6 through 9). The jet starts to deform into nodes (profile 10) due to Savart-Plateau-Rayleigh instability (Duchemin et al. 2002)

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