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Fig. 8 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 8

From: Large dependency of charge distribution in a tropical cyclone inner core upon aerosol number concentration

Fig. 8

a Number concentrations of water (black solid contour line; unit: cm−3), ice and snow (orange contour line; unit: L−1), and graupel (black dot-dashed line; unit: L−1), and qhyd (shaded area). b Charge density of hydrometeors (shaded area), cloud and rain (black contour line), ice and snow (orange contour line), and graupel (green contour line). c Charge density rate added to graupel by non-inductive charge separation over the z–R plane simulated and d temporal evolution of the charge density of graupel tangentially averaged over 20 km < R < 80 km with N0 = 1000 cm− 3. The white dotted area in d indicated the charge density of raindrops. The dotted line in bd indicates temperature (°C). Solid and dash-dotted contours in b show positive and negative charge charge densities, respectively. The contour lines in b show 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 nC m−3, respectively. The variables were tangentially averaged during the last 12 h of the simulation

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