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Table 2 Sampled core depths; ages; sea surface temperatures (SST); fluxes of C37 benthic foraminifera; relative abundance of pollens including Castanea, Abies, and Picea; and relative abundance of coccoliths

From: Climatic reconstruction at the Sannai-Maruyama site between Bond events 4 and 3—implication for the collapse of the society at 4.2 ka event

Sample no. Depth (cm) Age (cal. yrs BP) C37 alkenone SST (°C) C37 alkenone flux (μg cm−2 kyr−1) N. labradorica N. Stella Gephyrocap oceanica (‰) Emiliania huxleyi (‰) The other coccoliths (‰)
δ 18O (‰) δ 13C (‰) δ 18O (‰) δ 13C (‰)
  3.3 0.63    1.99 − 0.94 2.42 − 2.16    
1–3 5.5 0.95 22.5 0.12 1.94 − 1.14 2.56 − 2.08 74.3 18.9 6.8
1–4 7.7 1.27 22.7 0.12 2.10 − 0.70 2.39 − 2.10    
1–5 9.9 1.59 23.4 0.14 2.09 − 0.89 2.56 − 2.23    
1–6 12.1 1.91 23.6 0.25 2.05 − 0.71 2.66 − 2.00 79.7 20.3 0
1–7 14.3 2.23 23.6 0.13 1.98 − 0.93 2.35 − 2.25    
2–1 16.1 2.50 22.2 0.08 1.85 − 0.89   − 2.01 81.1 13.5 5.4
2–2 18.4 2.83 22.9 0.10 1.99 − 0.77 2.52 − 1.89 86.5 12.2 1.4
2–3 20.7 3.16 22.8 0.09 1.91 − 1.00 2.59 − 2.22 68.9 31.1 0
2–4 23.0 3.49 22.3 0.14 1.76 − 0.82 2.49 − 2.45    
2–5 25.2 3.82 22.7 0.21      89.2 8.1 2.7
2–7 29.8 4.18 23.3 1.44 1.92 − 0.87 2.50 − 2.26    
2–10 36.6 4.27 24.0 1.11 2.09 − 0.88 2.47 − 1.86 82.4 12.2 5.4
2–13 43.8 4.37 24.1 1.37 1.98 − 0.90 2.48 − 2.33    
2–16 50.2 4.45 24.0 0.42 2.08 − 0.99 2.46 − 2.15    
2–19 57.0 4.54 23.5 1.89 2.29 − 0.68 2.55 − 2.18 73 24.3 2.7
2–22 63.8 4.63 23.7 1.14 2.23 − 1.03 2.47 − 2.18    
2–25 70.6 4.72 23.5 1.54 2.14 − 1.20 2.54 − 2.17 78.4 20.3 1.4
72.9 4.75    2.30 − 0.87      
2–28 77.4 4.81 24.1 1.24 2.03 − 0.86 2.46 − 2.43    
2–31 84.2 4.90 23.4 1.16    2.46 − 2.98 68.9 27 4.1
2–32 86.5 4.93 24.1 1.18 2.06 − 1.05      
2–34 91.1 4.99 23.3 1.01 2.05 − 1.05 2.52 − 2.40    
2–36 95.6 5.05 23.7 1.11 1.91 − 1.18    82.4 16.2 1.4
2–37 97.9 5.08 23.8 1.86 2.16 − 1.22      
2–38 100.1 5.11 24.2 0.80      81.1 16.2 2.7
2–40 104.7 5.17 23.5 1.12    2.49 − 2.50    
2–42 109.2 5.23 23.6 1.17        
111.5 5.26    1.99 − 1.55 2.53 − 2.96    
3–1 116.1 5.32 23.1 3.11 1.86 − 1.50 2.45 − 2.96 68.9 29.7 1.4
3–5 125.2 5.42    2.04 − 1.44 2.34 − 2.93    
3–7 129.8 5.47 23.0 3.18 1.55 − 1.35 2.58 − 2.48    
3–11 138.8 5.58 22.6 2.70 1.88 − 1.50 2.54 − 2.96    
147.9 5.68    1.76 − 1.95 2.36 − 3.40    
3–19 157.0 5.78 22.7 2.22 1.99 − 1.67 2.40 − 3.47 54.1 45.9 0
3–23 166.1 5.89 22.6 2.99 1.77 − 1.84 2.43 − 3.54    
3–25 170.6 5.94 21.9 3.07 2.01 − 1.67 2.23 − 3.06    
3–29 179.7 6.04 23.9 4.98 2.12 − 1.69 2.19 − 3.28    
3–32 187.5 6.10 22.2 3.67    2.47 − 3.46 67.6 21.6 10.8
3–35 193.3 6.15 23.0 3.75    2.60 − 3.26    
3–39 202.4 6.22 23.7 1.50 2.21 − 1.97 2.44 − 3.68    
3–43 211.5 6.29 22.0 5.02 1.83 − 2.82      
4–1 216.6 6.33 23.9 1.37    2.47 − 4.94 70.3 23 6.8
4–5 225.8 6.41 23.4 2.84        
4–7 230.8 6.45    2.13 − 1.75 2.52 − 3.93    
4–11 239.4 6.52 23.1 3.23    2.52 − 2.97    
4–14 246.3 6.57    2.35 − 2.32 2.47 − 3.80    
4–17 253.1 6.64 23.8 1.61    2.48 − 3.33 73 24.3 2.7
4–20 260.0 6.71 23.3 1.08    2.60 − 2.95    
4–24 269.1 6.81 23.9 0.79 2.02 − 1.94 2.59 − 3.43    
4–27 275.9 6.89      2.74 − 3.45    
4–30 282.8 6.96 24.0 1.05 1.90 − 1.77 2.53 − 2.76    
4–35 294.2 7.09 22.7 1.72    2.61 − 3.55 55.4 39.2 5.4
4–38 301.0 7.16 23.0 0.66      47.3 48 4.7
4–41 307.8 7.24      2.67 − 4.49    
5–2 319.9 7.37 23.1 0.76    2.78 − 3.53    
5–4 324.5 7.42          
5–8 333.5 7.52 22.8 0.73    2.87 − 3.58 70.3 25.7 4.1
5–15 349.4 7.69 22.4 0.58    2.67 − 3.86    
5–19 358.5 7.79      2.87 − 4.45    
5–21 363.0 7.84 23.0 0.52    2.86 − 4.24    
5–25 372.1 7.94 24.2 0.52    2.64 − 3.72 71.6 21.6 6.8
5–27 376.7 7.99 23.6 0.54    2.79 − 3.88    
  1. Original data of Alkenone SST and pollen are from Kawahata et al. (2009b)