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Fig. 10 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 10

From: Wind-driven decadal sea surface height and main pycnocline depth changes in the western subarctic North Pacific

Fig. 10

ac Same as Fig. 9 but for inverted Ekman vertical velocity, −wE, in 10−6m s−1 based on the NCEP/NCAR wind stress data from 1979 to 2014. Negative value indicates upward velocity, i.e., Ekman suction. Arrows show El Niño-related enhancements in Ekman suction. Vertical dashed lines and connecting arrows denote westernmost longitudes of significantly negative wE and their westward migrations in the 1990s, respectively

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