Skip to main content

Table 1 Cause and effect relationship for substorm-associated aurora as suggested by the global MHD simulation

From: Simulation study of near-Earth space disturbances: 2. Auroral substorms

Substorm phase

Characteristics of aurora

Possible cause

Growth phase

Quiet arc

Flow shear at off-equator (Tanaka et al., 2017a)

High-latitude aurora within main auroral oval

Non-linear interaction between magnetosphere and ionosphere (Ebihara and Tanaka 2016)


Initial brightening

Enhanced flow shear at off-equator (Ebihara and Tanaka 2015b)


Westward traveling surge

Coupling of partial blockage of Hall current and MHD magnetosphere (Ebihara and Tanaka 2015a; Ebihara and Tanaka 2018)