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Table 1 Cause and effect relationship for substorm-associated aurora as suggested by the global MHD simulation

From: Simulation study of near-Earth space disturbances: 2. Auroral substorms

Substorm phase Characteristics of aurora Possible cause
Growth phase Quiet arc Flow shear at off-equator (Tanaka et al., 2017a)
High-latitude aurora within main auroral oval Non-linear interaction between magnetosphere and ionosphere (Ebihara and Tanaka 2016)
Onset Initial brightening Enhanced flow shear at off-equator (Ebihara and Tanaka 2015b)
Expansion Westward traveling surge Coupling of partial blockage of Hall current and MHD magnetosphere (Ebihara and Tanaka 2015a; Ebihara and Tanaka 2018)