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Fig. 15 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 15

From: Simulation study of near-Earth space disturbances: 2. Auroral substorms

Fig. 15

The principal pathway of electromagnetic energy in the magnetosphere (as shown by the white line) at 15 min before onset (left panel) and at expansion onset (right panel). The blue shade indicates the region where JE < 0 (dynamo region). The light blue line indicates the magnetic field line. The plane indicates the equatorial plane with color given by the X-component of the plasma flow. The yellow line stands for the magnetic field line extending from the onset location in the ionosphere. (Adapted from Ebihara and Tanaka 2017)

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