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Fig. 12 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 12

From: Simulation study of near-Earth space disturbances: 2. Auroral substorms

Fig. 12

a. Close-up views of the FACs, b. the ionospheric conductivity, and c. the magnetospheric pressure mapped to the ionosphere at T = 74.5 min. In a., the yellow and red contour lines indicate the region where ·E is positive (0.3 μV/m2 for thick line and 0.15 μV/m2 for thin line) and ·E is negative (− 0.3 μV/m2 for thick line and − 0.15 μV/m2 for thin line), respectively. E is the ionospheric electric field. The contour line in a and b indicates the ionospheric electric potential at interval of 1 kV. The contour line in c indicates the FACs. (Adapted from Ebihara and Tanaka 2018)

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