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Fig. 12 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 12

From: Simulation study of near-Earth space disturbances: 1. magnetic storms

Fig. 12

Influence of ring current-ionosphere coupling on the ring current protons in terms of shielding. The flux of energetic neutral atoms is indicated by red color in the unit of 1/cm2 s str keV. Precipitating proton flux into the ionosphere is indicated by blue color in the unit of 1012 eV/cm2 s. The left panel shows the observation made by the IMAGE satellite. The right one shows the simulation result. (Ebihara et al. 2011). a Observation (39–50 keV). b Simulation (44 keV)

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