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Fig. 2 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 2

From: Three-dimensional mapping and kinematic characterization of mass transport deposits along the outer Kumano Basin and Nankai accretionary wedge, southwest Japan

Fig. 2

Key geometric and geologic criteria for kinematic indicator recognition. 1—headwall scarp. The direction of initial movement roughly perpendicular to the headwall propagation. 2—en-echelon sigmoidal segments. Strike-slip affected MTD material differentiates lateral margin from headwall scarp. 3—lateral margins. Delimits strike-parallel extent of MTD and constrains gross general transport direction. 4—ramp. Location(s) where the BSS jumps to a higher stratigraphic level. 5—flat. Location(s) where the BSS is parallel with local stratigraphy. 6—grooves. Implies debris flow processes with a translation parallel to their trend. 7—translated block. Often align long-axis downslope. 8—secondary flow fabric. Translation direction indicated by the trend of flow parallel banding. 9—pop-up blocks. Typically hundreds of meters high, translation perpendicular to the alignment of ridges. 10—pressure ridges. Typically tens of meters high, translation perpendicular to the strike of thrust faults. 11—MTD matrix. 12—frontally confined toe. 13—frontally emergent toe. BSS—basal shear surface. MTD—mass transport deposit. Modified after Bull et al. (2009)

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