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Fig. 1 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 1

From: Meridional march of diurnal rainfall over Jakarta, Indonesia, observed with a C-band Doppler radar: an overview of the HARIMAU2010 campaign

Fig. 1

Area of study for the HARIMAU2010 campaign. a Topographical maps of Indonesia and b the western part of Jawa Island. Rectangles in black, red, and blue solid lines in panel a indicate a location in panel b, definition areas for CENS (5.0° S–EQ, 105° E–115° E), and definition areas for CT (2° N–10° N, 105° E–112° E), respectively. The four closed black circles indicate the sounding stations used in the present study: PMK, SER, KRW, and BGR stand for Pramuka, Serang, Karawang, and Bogor, respectively. A small open circle shows the location of the Cengkareng (CGK) BMKG meteorological station for the Jakarta Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. The middle point between Serang and Karawang is indicated as Cengkareng* (CGK*) with an open triangle, and it was used for the analyses in Figs. 7 and 9. SRP with a plus sign stands for Serpong, where both the C-band Doppler radar (CDR) and wind profiling radar (WPR) are installed; the large open circle indicates the observational range (105 km in radius) of the CDR volume scan mode. Large three rectangles depicted by solid black lines over Jakarta (106.0° E–107.5° E) indicate the areas for GSMaP rain analyses in Fig. 3, which included coastal sea (6.0° S–5.5° S), land (6.5° S–6.0° S), and mountain foothill (7.0° S–6.5° S) regions. The rectangle depicted by the dashed red lines indicates the area (7.0° S–5.5° S, 106.25° E–107.15° E) for CDR data analyses in Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9. The area surrounded by a solid blue line shows the “greater Jakarta” region (Jakarta city and surrounding urban agglomerations of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi (JABODETABEK); hereafter, just referred to as Jakarta)

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