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Table 1 Comparison between LSWS features and the results from our study

From: Relationship between day-to-day variability of equatorial plasma bubble activity from GPS scintillation and atmospheric properties from Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy (GAIA) assimilation

LSWS features

(Tsunoda 2005)

Atmospheric longitudinal variability on EPB-active days (our findings)


East-west shallow perturbation of ionospheric density

East-west fluctuation of temperature and wind velocity


Enhancement at equator

Large amplitude at lower latitudes across equator


Appears in afternoon to dusk period

Found at any time


Zonal wavelengths range from several hundreds to 1000 km

Zonal wavelength exceeded 2000 km

Inconsistency 1

Stationary to the ground

Eastward propagation

Inconsistency 2