Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Timeline of lightning studies. Venus dates correspond to relevant publications, rather than data acquisition, generally only a year or so earlier

From: Lightning detection on Venus: a critical review

  Venus Earth
1959–1964 Mariner 2 encounter with Venus; hot greenhouse atmosphere identified Whistlers first observed by satellites—Vanguard III, Alouette, Injuns 3 and 5
1967 First in situ measurements—Venera 4  
1970–1   Optical flashes mapped by OSO-2 and OSO-5 satellites
1972 Venera 8 reaches surface  
1975 Veneras 9 and 10 landers + Orbiters. V-9 orbiter records possible flashes RF lightning emissions mapped by UK satellite Ariel 4
1979 VLF Discharges measured by Venera 11, 12 landers  
1979–80 Pioneer Venus Orbiter detects electric ELF whistlers  
1983 Veneras 13 and 14 confirm VLF discharges  
1986 VEGA balloons float in Venus atmosphere  
1989   NLDN provides continuous US continental-scale lightning mapping
1989 Magellan spacecraft launched Sprites first photographed
1994   Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) discovered
1997   FORTE satellite: both optical and RF detections TRMM satellite studies storms and lightning
2004   DEMETER satellite. World-Wide Lightning Network (WWLN) established
2007 Venus Express detects magnetic ELF Whistlers  
2008   C/NOFS satellite
2010 Akatsuki launched  
2016   GOES-16 with Geostationary Lightning Mapper