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Fig. 1 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 1

From: Daytime F-region irregularity triggered by rocket-induced ionospheric hole over low latitude

Fig. 1

a, b Range-time-intensity, c, d Doppler velocity, and e, f Doppler spectral width maps of backscatter echoes measured by the Fuke (19.3° N, 109.1° E) radar beam 6 on May 30, 2016, and October 26, 2015, respectively. g, h Temporal variations of TEC, rate of TEC change index, ROTI, and scintillation S4 measured by the Sanya (18.3° N, 109.6° E) GNSS receiver on the 2 days. The hmF2 variations over Sanya on the 2 days are shown as yellow curves in panels a and b. The inset in the left middle panels shows an example of Doppler spectra. The dash-dotted red vertical lines in the left plots mark the period when the F-region irregularity growth was observed. The red arrow in panel g marks the TEC reduction just prior to the appearance of the F-region irregularity

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