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Fig. 9 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 9

From: Multi-instrumented observations of the equatorial F-region during June solstice: large-scale wave structures and spread-F

Fig. 9

Comparison of airglow perturbations and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements. The top first and second rows show airglow images. The ionospheric piercing points (at 350 km altitude) for GPS satellites tracked within 8 minutes of the time the images were taken are also shown. The piercing points are shown in red with the pseudo-random noise (PRN) number indicated in each track. The bottom plot shows the vertical TEC measurements made using signals from three different satellites (PRNs 21, 25, 29, and 24). TEC depletions associated with plasma bubbles are only seen after about 23:00 LT in PRNs 21, 25, and 29. TEC data is only shown for satellites with elevation greater than 15°

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