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Fig. 4 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 4

From: Multi-instrumented observations of the equatorial F-region during June solstice: large-scale wave structures and spread-F

Fig. 4

The top panel shows the RTI map for AMISR-14 observations (vertical beam) made on the night of July 24–25, 2016. The bottom panels show 630 nm airglow images (intensity in Rayleighs) for different times before and during the occurrence of ESF echoes. The times for each image are indicated in the top left side of each panel and as vertical green lines in the RTI map. The solid red line in each image represents the zonal variation of the airglow near the Jicamarca’s latitude (− 12° N). The black solid line is a reference base line to help the reader identify fluctuations in airglow if any

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