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Table 2 Comparison of sediment discharge and production triggered by the heavy rainfall events in 1990, 2001, and 2012 (after Miyabuchi and Daimaru, 2004 and Saito et al. 2016), and the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. The rainfalls and return periods were calculated from radar/rain-gauge analyzed precipitation provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (Saito and Matsuyama, 2015)

From: Landslides triggered by an earthquake and heavy rainfalls at Aso volcano, Japan, detected by UAS and SfM-MVS photogrammetry

Event July 1990 June 2001 July 2012 2016 Kumamoto earthquake
Max. 1 h rainfall/return period 80.0 mm/12 years 90.0 mm/23 years 85.0 mm/16 years 0.0 mm
Max. 24 h rainfall/return period 497.8 mm/26 years 297.0 mm/2 years 427.6 mm/11 years 0.0 mm
Sediment discharge (sediment production, m3/km2) 3.1–3.9 × 104 3.0–4.1 × 103 1.2–4.8 × 105 2.5 × 104