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Table 1 Possible large-scale states driving downscaling with reanalysis and GCM simulations in present and future climates

From: Decomposition of the large-scale atmospheric state driving downscaling: a perspective on dynamical downscaling for regional climate study

Perturbation A Gp Gf
A A G p −{G p ,A}  
(=〈A〉+{A,A}) A〉+{A,A}+A \(\langle A\rangle +\{A,A\}+G_{p}^{\prime }\) \(\langle A\rangle +\{A,A\}+G_{f}^{\prime }\)
  Present DDS (reanalysis) Present Unbiased-DS  
G p   G p  
(=〈A〉+{G p ,A}) A〉+{G p ,A}+A \(\langle A\rangle +\{G_{p},A\}+G_{p}^{\prime }\) \(\langle A\rangle +\{G_{p},A\}+G_{f}^{\prime }\)
   Present DDS (GCM)  
UG f A+{G f ,G p }   G f −{G p ,A}
(=〈A〉+{G f ,G p }) A〉+{G f ,G p }+A \(\langle A\rangle +\{G_{f},G_{p}\}+G_{p}^{\prime }\) \(\langle A\rangle +\{G_{f},G_{p}\}+G_{f}^{\prime }\)
  Pseudo-Clim-DS   Future Unbiased-DS
G f   G p +{G f ,G p } G f
(=〈A〉+{G f ,A}) A〉+{G f ,A}+A \(\langle A\rangle +\{G_{f},A\}+G_{p}^{\prime }\) \(\langle A\rangle +\{G_{f},A\}+G_{f}^{\prime }\)
   ATC-Pseudo-Clim-DS Future DDS
  1. The top, middle, and bottom rows in each cell represent the original form, decomposition form, and corresponding downscaling method, respectively. The climatology and perturbation of a state are represented by 〈 〉 and prime, respectively, and the climate difference by { }