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Table 2 Study sites’ water quality

From: Coastal sand dune ecosystem services in metropolitan suburbs: effects on the sake brewery environment induced by changing social conditions

Municipality Water quality characteristics
Taisho period Present (2014) Well depth (m) Total hardness (ppm) Mg (ppm) Ca (ppm) Water sampling period
Makuhari Town Hanamigawa Ward in Chiba City Shallow well 2.0–3.5 Before 1954a
Kemigawa Town Inage Ward in Chiba City Shallow well 2.0–5.5 Before 1954a
Shiina Village Midori Ward in Chiba City
Goi Town Ichihara City Shallow well 3.6 230.3 92.0 Before 1966b
Kaneda Village Kisarazu City Shallow well 5–10 75.0 7.0 18.4 May 1953c
Iwane Village
Kisarazu Town Shallow well < 10 267.8 12.4 87.0 May 1953c
Funagata Town Tateyama City
Nako Town Shallow well 3.0 196.0 15.8 52.0 September 1953c
Hojo Town Shallow well 4.0 156.0 18.9 32.4 September 1965c
Tateyama Town Shallow well 5.0 106.8 14.7 19.2 September 1963d
  1. aChiba Prefecture (1954) Groundwater investigation report in the suburbs of Chiba City
  2. bChiba Prefecture (1966) Groundwater of Chiba Prefecture
  3. cInstitute for health in Chiba Prefecture(1983) Ground water quality document collection in Chiba Prefecture
  4. dChiba Prefecture(1963) Annual reports of Industrial Res. Inst. of Chiba Prefecture