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Table 1 Land classification, sub-surface geology, and soil type in study area

From: Coastal sand dune ecosystem services in metropolitan suburbs: effects on the sake brewery environment induced by changing social conditions

Municipality Land classification Sub-surface geology Soil
Taisho period Present (2014)
Makuhari Town Hanamigawa ward in Chiba City Sand bankc, natural levee Sand-rich sedimenta Unclassifiable
Kemigawa Town Inage ward in Chiba City Sand bankc, natural levee, Sand 1b (exceedingly soft) Unclassifiable
Covering dune
Shiina Village Midori ward in Chiba City Sand bankc, natural levee Sand-rich sedimenta Pale ando soils
Goi Town Ichihara City Sand bankc, natural levee Sand-rich sedimenta Rough particle gray soil
Kaneda Village Kisarazu City Sand bar, sand bankc , natural levee Sand-rich sedimenta Rough particle gray soil, Gray soil
Iwane Village Sand bar, sand bankc, natural levee Mud-rich sedimentsd Gray soils
Kisarazu Town Sand bar, sand bankc , natural levee, flood plains Sand 1b (exceedingly soft) Rough particle gray soil, Gray soil
Funagata Town Tateyama City Sand bar (covered sand dune) Sand-rich sedimenta Unclassifiable
Nako Town Sand bar (covered sand dune) Sand-rich sedimenta Unclassifiable
Hojo Town Sand bar Sand-rich sedimenta Unclassifiable
Tateyama Town Sand bar Sand-rich sedimenta Unclassifiable
  1. aSand-rich sediments: composed of sand and sand banks in the coastal area and composed of fine- medium sand
  2. bSand 1: consists of fine-to-medium grain sand, coarse sand, sandwiching a gravel clay. The thickness of the stratum is approximately 10–20 m
  3. cSand bar-sand bank: beach ridge composed of sand forced near the coast by waves and coastal currents
  4. dMud-rich sediments: distributed along the tributary valleys to cut the lowlands of the rivers and plateaus as well as the coastal lowland facing Tokyo Bay; composed of silt and clay