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Table 8 Results of multiple comparison tests between before and after thinning (setting) and pre–post (exposure to the forest) for Profile of Mood States (mood)

From: The effect of slight thinning of managed coniferous forest on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration

  Unthinned Thinned
Pre   Post   p   Pre   Post   p  
Mean S.D. Mean S.D.    Mean S.D. Mean S.D.   
Tension-Anxiety 4.20 ±3.34 2.20 ±2.91 0.006 ** 3.07 ±2.59 1.33 ±1.45 0.017 *
Depression-Dejection 1.47 ±1.85 0.20 ±0.56 0.002 ** 1.33 ±2.09 0.53 ±0.62 0.043 *
Anger-Hostility 0.40 ±0.74 0.20 ±0.77 0.383   0.80 ±1.22 0.27 ±0.57 0.023 *
Vigor 5.07 ±3.31 3.87 ±3.54 0.160   4.07 ±3.30 3.00 ±2.63 0.211  
Fatigue 2.73 ±2.22 0.93 ±1.16 0.002 ** 2.87 ±2.87 1.80 ±1.76 0.061 #
Confusion 5.80 ±2.24 4.07 ±1.22 0.005 ** 3.40 ±5.65 2.00 ±1.83 0.021 *
  Pre Post
Unthinned   Thinned   p   Unthinned   Thinned   p  
Mean S.D. Mean S.D.    Mean S.D. Mean S.D.   
Tension-Anxiety 4.20 ±3.34 3.07 ±2.59 0.043 * 2.20 ±2.91 1.33 ±1.45 0.116  
Depression-Dejection 1.47 ±1.85 1.33 ±2.09 0.561   0.20 ±0.56 0.53 ±0.62 0.152  
Anger-Hostility 0.40 ±0.74 0.80 ±1.22 0.021 * 0.20 ±0.77 0.27 ±0.57 0.687  
Vigor 5.07 ±3.31 4.07 ±3.30 0.153   3.87 ±3.54 3.00 ±2.63 0.214  
Fatigue 2.73 ±2.22 2.87 ±2.87 0.698   0.93 ±1.16 1.80 ±1.76 0.017 *
Confusion 5.80 ±2.24 3.40 ±5.65 0.000 ** 4.07 ±1.22 2.00 ±1.83 0.000 **
  1. **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, # p < 0.1 ANOVA-Bonferroni