Skip to main content

Table 5 Results of t-test comparison between unthinned and thinned settings (Semantic Differential Method)

From: The effect of slight thinning of managed coniferous forest on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration

  Unthinned Thinned t p   r
  mean S.D. mean S.D.     
Bright (1) - Dark (7) 2.3 ±0.8 3.1 ±1.19 -2.48 0.027 * 0.552
Open (1) - Closed (7) 2.3 ±1.11 2.7 ±1.35 -1.03 0.320   0.266
Artificial (1) - Natural (7) 5.7 ±0.82 5.4 ±1.3 0.59 0.565   0.156
Smelly (1) - Odorless (7) 3.6 ±1.35 3.3 ±1.23 0.48 0.639   0.128
Still (1) - Animated (7) 5.0 ±1 4.5 ±1.13 1.37 0.192   0.345
Comfortable (1) - Uncomfortable (7) 2.5 ±1.06 2.7 ±1.22 -0.49 0.629   0.131
Quiet (1) - Noisy (7) 3.2 ±1.35 3.3 ±1.5 -0.24 0.815   0.064
Ugly (1) - Beautiful (7) 5.6 ±0.74 5.3 ±0.9 1.07 0.301   0.277
Pleasing sound (1) - Irritating noise (7) 2.5 ±1.41 3.1 ±1.25 -1.21 0.245   0.309
Friendly (1) - Unfriendly (7) 2.4 ±0.74 2.3 ±0.72 0.32 0.751   0.087
Dull (1) - Refreshing (7) 5.9 ±0.64 5.1 ±1.44 1.87 0.082 # 0.448
Orderly (1) - Chaotic (7) 3.7 ±1.39 3.7 ±1.18 0.12 0.906   0.033
Warm (1) - Cool (7) 4.9 ±1.03 4.7 ±1.23 0.72 0.484   0.189
Insecure (1) - Secure (7) 4.9 ±1.1 4.6 ±1.18 0.66 0.519   0.174
Gentle lighting (1) - Too bright (7) 2.8 ±0.94 2.3 ±0.7 1.88 0.081 # 0.449
Thin (1) - Thick (7) 4.0 ±0.66 3.3 ±0.98 1.78 0.096 # 0.431
Flat (1) - Three dimensional (7) 5.3 ±1.5 5.3 ±1.35 0.00 1.000   0.000
Awaking (1) - Soothing (7) 4.7 ±1.16 4.9 ±1.44 -0.39 0.700   0.105
Enchanted (1) - Disenchanted (7) 3.5 ±0.74 3.2 ±1.08 0.79 0.442   0.207
Fragrant (1) - Malodorous (7) 3.5 ±0.74 3.3 ±0.7 0.94 0.364   0.244
Non enjoyable (1) - Enjoyable (7) 5.7 ±0.59 5.8 ±0.78 -0.27 0.792   0.072
Restless (1) - Calm (7) 5.4 ±1.18 5.3 ±1.44 0.26 0.796   0.071
Dry (1) - Wet (7) 3.8 ±0.86 5.3 ±0.96 -3.90 0.002 ** 0.722
Nondescript (1) - Unique (7) 3.4 ±0.74 3.7 ±1.03 -1.05 0.313   0.27
Healthy (1) - Unhealthy (7) 2.5 ±0.52 2.4 ±0.83 0.62 0.546   0.164
  1. Likert scale of seven stages was used for this questionnaire
  2. **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, # p < 0.1 paired t-test