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Fig. 4 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 4

From: A 2700-year record of ENSO and PDO variability from the Californian margin based on coccolithophore assemblages and calcification

Fig. 4

Twentieth century records of the variability of the coccolithophore nannoflora. Top: mean mass in picogram of coccoliths belonging to the species E. huxleyi, G. ericsonii, and G. muellerae in black line with dots. The blue line is smoothed (LOESS) records. The scale on the right represents the concentration in ion bicarbonate equivalent to the coccolith mass from the relation proposed in Beaufort et al. (2011). The boxes associated with these axes are the ranges of [CO3 2−] between 2005 and 2011 (Alin et al. 2012). Green upwelling season, Red no-upwelling season. Red arrowhead represents the maximal value obtained during an El Niño event, and the green arrowhead the minimal value obtained during a La Niña event. Bottom: NINO3 index (black line with dots original—red smoothed (LOESS) record.) (Kaplan et al. 1998; Reynolds et al. 2002) (data available at Major El Niño events are indicated by numbers, arrows, and orange bands. Minor El Niño by purple bands. (Adapted from Grelaud et al. (2009b))

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