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Table 1 Summary of sandy tsunami deposits related to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

From: Examination of the largest-possible tsunamis (Level 2) generated along the Nankai and Suruga troughs during the past 4000 years based on studies of tsunami deposits from the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami

  Region Height amsl (m) Maximum thickness (cm) Numbers of layers Inner structure Laminations Sorting Presence of marine fossils Presence of rip-up clasts References
1 Atsuma river, Hokkaido 3.53 (inundation height) ca. 20 6 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) Sand layers seperated by mud drape.
Parallel > > cross Well Diatoms No detection Oota et al. 2012
2 Misawa coast, Aomori Prefecture 3.5–8.8 (flow height) 56 1 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) Normal grading.
Massive > parallel > cross Well to moderately No detection No detection Nakamura et al. 2012
3 Southern Misawa coast, Aomori Prefecture 8 (run up height) 48 1 to 3 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) Normal grading > reverse grading.
Parallel No detection No detection Koiwa et al. 2014
4 Mouth of Fudai river, Iwate Prefecture 23 (run up height) 60 1 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) Normal grading.
Parallel Poorly No detection No detection Seo and Okushi 2012
5 Miyako City, Iwate Prefecture 28.1 (flow depth at the coast) ca 100 1 (1) Erosinal basement. normal and inverse grading Massive No detection Presence Yamada et al. 2014
6 Koyadori, Iwate prefecture 26-29 (run up height)
13-18 (inundation height)
20 2 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) The lower unit is composed of coarse sediments with normal grading. The upper unit comprises finer sediments.
Partially laminated No detection Ishimura and Miyauchi 2015
7 Rikuzen Takada, Iwate Prefecture 19.9 (run up height)
14-15 (inundation height)
31.5 1 to 4 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) The normally graded subunit was generally thicker than the inverse-graded one.
Parallell > > cross Moderately to poorly Ostracoda No detection Naruse et al. 2012
8 Beach along Matsushima bay, Miyagi Prefecture 8-14 (flow height at the coast) Molluscs Fujiwara et al. 2014
9 Sendai Plain, Miyagi Prefecture 11 (flow height at the coast) ca 70 1 to 2 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) Normal grading > > massive.
Parallell > > cross Well Very rare diatoms Presence Goto et al. 2011; Kitamura and Wakayama 2011; Shishikura 2011; Abe et al. 2012; Pilarczyk et al. 2012; Szczuciński et al. 2012; Takashimizu et al. 2012; Putra et al. 2013; Fujiwara and Tanigawa 2014; Goto et al. 2014a, b
10 Minami-Souma, Fukushima Prefecture 30 Multiple layers (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) Normal grading.
Laminar Poorly Iijima et al. 2013
11 Kita-Ibaraki, Ibaraki Prefecture 5.47 (flow height at the coast) 28 1 to 4 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) Sand layers were often seperated by mud drape.
(3) Massive > normal grading.
Massive > parallel Well Molluscs No detection Yamada and Fujino 2013
12 Norther Boso Peninsular, Chiba Prefecture 6 (flow height at the coast) 35 4 (1) Erosinal basement.
(2) The fine alternation of sand sheet and overlying mud drape.
Massive Molluscs No detection Fujiwara et al. 2012