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Table 2 Typical on-land sections along the Japanese coast and records of microfossils from these areas

From: Transitional changes in microfossil assemblages in the Japan Sea from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene related to global climatic and local tectonic events

District Formation Lithology Microfossils Biozone Bathymetry
1. Hokkaido (north) Yuchi/Mochikubetsu Fine sandstone Diatom (Akiba, 2001; Sagayama, 2003) NPD9 (younger than 2.4 Ma) (Akiba, 2001)  
NPD8 (Sagayama, 2003)
Koetoi/Enbetsu Diatomaceous mudstone Diatom (Akiba, 2001) NPD7B–NPD8 (Akiba, 2001)  
2. Hokkaido (southwest) Setana/Urura Medium–coarse sandstone Foraminifera (Nojo et al., 1999; Nemoto and Oikawa, 2006), nannofossil (Nojo et al., 1999) CN13b–CN14a, PF8 (Nojo et al., 1999) Sublittoral to upper bathyal (Nemoto and Oikawa, 2006)
Kuromatsunai (type locality) Medium sand–siltstone Foraminifera (Masatani and Ohkura, 1980; Tsubakihara et al., 1989), diatom (Masatani and Ohkura, 1980; Tsubakihara et al., 1989) NPD9 (Tsubakihara et al., 1989) Lower sublittoral to middle bathyal (Masatani and Ohkura, 1980)
Tate Diatomaceous siltstone Foraminifera (Masatani and Ohkura, 1980), diatom (Masatani and Ohkura, 1980) NPD7B–NPD8 (Masatani and Ohkura, 1980) Sublittoral to bathyal (Masatani and Ohkura, 1980)
3. Shimokita Peninsula Hamada Sandstone–siltstone Foraminifera (Sugawara et al., 1997; Nemoto and Yoshimoto, 2001), Ostracoda (Ozawa and Domitsu, 2010) CN13 (ca. 1.2–1.5 Ma, Sugawara et al., 1997) Upper shelf to inner bay (Ozawa and Domitsu, 2010), inner sublittoral to upper bathyal (Nemoto and Yoshimoto, 2001)
PF7 (Sugawara et al., 1997)
4. Tsugaru Daishaka Fine–medium sandstone Foraminifera (Hata and Nemoto, 2005), Ostracoda (Ozawa, 2007) PF8/PF9 (Hata and Nemoto, 2005) Sublittoral to upper bathyal (Hata and Nemoto, 2005)
Tsukushimoriyama Fine sandstone–siltstone Foraminifera (Hata and Nemoto, 2005) PF7 (Hata and Nemoto, 2005) Upper bathyal (Hata and Nemoto, 2005)
Narusawa Fine sandstone Nannofossil (Okada, 1988), Foraminifera (Matoba, 1988), diatom (Maruyama, 1988; Akiba and Hiramatsu, 1988) CN12 (Okada, 1988) Upper bathyal (Matoba, 1988)
NPD8 (Akiba and Hiramatsu, 1988)
NPD9 (according to present of N. seminae in occurrence list of Maruyama, 1988)
  Maido Diatomaceous, siltstone Foraminifera (Nemoto 1990), Radiolaria (Hanagata and Miwa, 2002), diatom (Maruyama, 1988; Akiba and Hiramatsu, 1988) PF6–PF7 (Nemoto 1990) Middle/lower bathyal (lower part: Matoba, 1988) to upper bathyal (upper part: Nemoto 1990)
NPD7B–NPD8 (Maruyama, 1988; Akiba and Hiramatsu, 1988)
L. pylomaticus–C. sakaii zone (Hanagata and Miwa, 2002)
5. Akita (Oga Peninsula) Kitaura Alternations of fine sandstone and siltstone Foraminifera (Sato et al., 1988a), nannofossil (Sato et al., 1988a) PF7 (Sato et al., 1988a) Upper bathyal (according to the U. subperegrina assemblage)
U. subperegrina zone (Sato et al., 1988a)
CN13 including datum 12 to 6 of Sato et al. (2009), (Sato et al., 1988a)
Funakawa Diatomaceous mudstone–siltstone Foraminifera (Sato et al., 1988a), nannofossil (Sato et al., 1988a), Radiolaria (Hanagata et al. 2001b) M. echigoensis zone (Sato et al., 1988a; Hanagata et al. 2001b) Middle bathyal (according to the M. echigoensis assemblage)
L. pylomaticus–C. sakaii zone (Hanagata et al. 2001b)
5. Akita (Sasaoka area) Sasaoka Fine sandstone–siltstone Foraminifera (Sato et al., 1988a), nannofossil (Sato et al., 1988a), Ostracoda (Yamada et al., 2002; Irizuki and Ishida, 2007) C. yabei zone (Sato et al., 1988a) Sublittoral (according to the C. yabei assemblage)
Tentokuji Siltstone–mudstone Foraminifera (Sato et al., 1988a; Hanagata and Watanabe, 2001), nannofossil (Sato et al., 1988a; Hanagata and Watanabe, 2001) PF6–PF7 (Hanagata and Watanabe, 2001) Upper bathyal (Hanagata and Watanabe, 2001)
CN12 including Datum A (Sato et al., 1988a; Hanagata and Watanabe, 2001)
M. echigoensis to U. subperegrina zone (Sato et al., 1988a; Hanagata and Watanabe, 2001)
6. Niigata Haizume Sandy siltstone–sandstone Foraminifera (Sato et al., 1987), nannofossil (Sato et al., 1987) PF8 (Sato et al., 1987) Sublittoral (according to the C. yabei assemblage)
C. yabei zone (Sato et al., 1987)
Nishiyama Siltstone–mudstone Foraminifera (Sato et al., 1987), nannofossil (Sato et al., 1987) PF7 (Sato et al., 1987) Upper bathyal (according to the U. subperegrina assemblage)
U. subperegrina zone (Sato et al., 1987)
CN13 including datum 10 to 8 of Sato et al. (2009, 1987)
Tanihama Siltstone Foraminifera (Watanabe, 1976), diatom (Yanagisawa and Amano 2003) NPD9 (Yanagisawa and Amano 2003) Upper bathyal (according to the U. subperegrina assemblage)
U. subperegrina zone (Watanabe, 1976)
Nadachi Mudstone Foraminifera (Watanabe, 1976), diatom (Yanagisawa and Amano 2003) NPD8 (Yanagisawa and Amano 2003) Upper bathyal (according to the U. subperegrina assemblage)
U. subperegrina zone (Watanabe, 1976)
Kuwae Siltstone–sandy siltstone Foraminifera (Miwa et al., 2004a), diatom (Watanabe et al., 2003), nannofossil (Watanabe et al., 2003), Ostracoda (Yamada et al., 2005; Irizuki and Ishida, 2007; Irizuki et al., 2007) PF7 (Miwa et al., 2004a) Lower sublittoral to upper bathyal (Yamada et al. 2005)
NPD8–NPD9 (Watanabe et al., 2003)
Shiiya Alternation of sandstone and mudstone Foraminifera (Hanagata et al., 2001a), Radiolaria (Hanagata et al., 2001a) L. pylomaticus–C. sakaii zone before 2.7 Ma (Hanagata et al. 2001a) Middle bathyal (according to the M. echigoensis assemblage)
M. echigoensis zone (Hanagata et al. 2001a)
7. Hokuriku Omma Fine sand–very fine sand Foraminifera (Hasegawa, 1979; Takayama et al., 1988; Kitamura et al., 2001; Takata, 2000), nannofossil (Takayama et al., 1988), Ostracoda (Ozawa and Kamiya, 2001; 2005) CN13–CN14 (Takayama et al., 1988; Takata, 2000) Outer–inner sublittoral (Takata, 2000)
Junicho Silty sandstone–sandy siltstone Foraminifera (Hasegawa, 1979; Takayama et al., 1988), nannofossil (Hasegawa, 1979; Takayama et al., 1988) CN13 including datum 12 to 11 of Sato et al. (2009) (Takayama et al., 1988) Sublittoral (Takayama et al., 1988)
Yabuta Fine sandstone–siltstone Foraminifera (Hasegawa, 1979; Takayama et al., 1988; Miwa et al., 2004b), diatom (Watanabe, 2002), nannofossil (Takayama et al., 1988), Ostracoda (Cronin et al., 1994) NPD7B–NPD9 (Watanabe, 2002) Sublittoral to upper bathyal (Takayama et al., 1988; Cronin et al., 1994)
PF6–PF 7 (Miwa et al., 2004b)
8. Jeju Island Sogwipo Fine–coarse sandstone Foraminifera (Kang et al., 2010), nannofossil (Yi et al. 1998), Ostracoda (Lee, 2014) CN13a–CN14a (Yi et al. 1998) Foreshore–inner shelf (Kang, 1995)
9. Okinawa Ryukyu Group Bioclastic limestone/siltstone Foraminifera (Yamamoto et al., 2003), nannofossil (Yamamoto et al., 2005) CN13b–CN14a (Yamamoto et al., 2005) Reef–shelf (Yamamoto et al., 2003)
Shimajiri Group Siltstone Foraminifera (Ujiié and Kaneko, 2006), nannofossil (Tanaka and Ujiié 1984) N16–N22 (Ujiié and Kaneko, 2006) Upper bathyal (Ujiié and Kaneko, 2006)
CN9a–CN13a (Tanaka and Ujiié 1984)