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Table 1 Ecological locations of each microfossil group

From: Transitional changes in microfossil assemblages in the Japan Sea from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene related to global climatic and local tectonic events

Calcareous nannofossil Phytoplankton Calcareous Surface water Subtropical water
Discoaster spp. (extincted)
Warm and high-nutrient water
Reticulofenestra spp. (small type)
Cold water
Coccolithus pelagicus
Diatom Phytoplankton Opal Surface water Warm water
Actinocyclus ellipticus, A. elongatus, Alveus marinus, Asterolampra marylandica, Asteromphalus arachne, A. flabellatus, A. imbricatus, A. pettersonii, A. sarcophagus, Azpeitia africanus, A. nodulifera, A. tabularis, Fragilariopsis doliolus, Hemidiscus cuneiformis, Nitzschia interruptestriata, N. kolaczekii, Planktoniella sol, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, Rhizosolenia acuminata, R. bergonii, R. hebetata f. semispina, R. imbricata, Roperia tessellata, Thalassiosira leptopus, T. oestrupii
Cold water
Actinocyclus curvatulus, A. ochotensis, Asteromphalus hyalinus, A. robustus, Bacterosira fragilis, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Coscinodiscus marginatus, C. oculus-iridis, Fragilariopsis cylindrus, F. oceanica, Neodenticula seminae, Porosira glacilis, Rhizosolenia hebetata, Thalassiosira gravida, T. hyalina, T. kryophila, T. nordenskioldii, T. trifulta Td' = warm/(warm + cold)
Brackish water
Paralia sulcata
Radiolaria Protista Opal Surface to deep water Warm water
Tetrapyle octacantha group, Dictocoryne profunda, Dictocoryne truncatum, Didymocyrtis tetrathalamus, Euchitonia flucata
Temperate water
Actinomma medianum group, Lithelius minor
Deep water
Cornutella profunda, Bathropyramis woodringi (Pacific); Cycladophora davisiana, Actinomma boreale group (JSPW)
Planktonic foraminifera Protista Calcareous Surface to intermediate water Subtropical water
Globigerinoides ruber, Pulleniatina spp. group
Temperate intermediate water
Globorotalia inflata
Cold water
Neogloboquadrina pachyderma
Benthic foraminifera Protista Calcareous agglutinated Sublittoral to abyssal seafloor Littoral-sublittoral
Cassidulina yabei, Hanzawaia nipponica, Elphidium spp., Buccella spp.
Bathyal
Uvigerina subperegrina, Epistominella pacifica, Angulogerina ikebei, Uvigerina yabei
Abyssal
Miliammina echigoensis, Martinottiella communis, Cribrostomoides subglobosus, Guppyella miocenica, Cyclammina japonica
Ostracoda Copepoda Calcareous Sublittoral to bathyal seafloor Warm sublittoral
Cornucoquimba moniwensis, Cytheropteron miurense
Cold sublittoral
Baffinicythere subkotoraforma, Schizocythere okhotskensis, Johnnealella nopporensis, Semicytherura mainensis
Warm upper bathyal
Krithe spp.
Cold upper bathyal
Acanthocythereis dunelmensis