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Fig. 3 | Progress in Earth and Planetary Science

Fig. 3

From: Magnetohydrodynamics modeling of coronal magnetic field and solar eruptions based on the photospheric magnetic field

Fig. 3

Observations and models of the solar flares. a The solar corona observed by soft X-ray from on board the Yohkoh satellite. The left panel shows the whole sun; the upper and lower right panels show the sigmoid and cusp-loop structures, observed before and after the flare, respectively. This figure is courtesy of ISAS/JAXA. b The reconnection process in the solar flare observed by SOHO satellite from Yokoyama et al. (2001). c 3D view of the magnetic field during the solar flare inferred from the observations from Shiota et al. (2005). d The loss-of-equilibrium model proposed by Forbes and Priest (1995). The flux tube loses the equilibrium by changing the boundary conditions; as a result, an eruption occurs. e The tether-cutting reconnection model proposed by Moore et al. (2001). The flux tube is created by the reconnection taking place between the two sheared field lines formed before onset; eventually, the flux tube can erupt away from the solar surface. The images in (be) are copyright AAS and reproduced by permission

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