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Table 1 Information on marine sediment cores of the OT used for past SST reconstructions

From: Sea surface temperature proxies (alkenones, foraminiferal Mg/Ca, and planktonic foraminiferal assemblage) and their implications in the Okinawa Trough

Proxy Core Latitude, longitude Water depth (m) Age control Time resolution (y) Sedimentation rate (cm/ky) Observed SSTa (°C) Core-top proxy temp. (°C) Average temperature (°C) Calibration equation Reference
Method Foraminiferal species Reservoir age (y) CALIB version Late Holocene LGM Late Holocene LGM
UK’ 37 Z14-6 27° 07' N 127° 27' E 739 δ18O Globigerinoides sacculifer 1000 5.4 5.8 25.0 26.3 ± 0.4 24.4 ± 0.6 Müller et al. (1998) Zhou et al. (2007)
Neogloboquadrina dutertrei
  DGKS 9604 28° 17' N 127° 01 'E 766 14C Neogloboquadrina dutertrei 4.4 100–300 20.4 19.1 25.6 26.2 26.1 ± 0.4 22.7 ± 0.4 Müller et al. (1998) Yu et al. (2009)
Planktonic foraminifer mixture (1071–1074 cm)
  KY07-04 PC-01 31° 38' N 128° 57' E 758 14C Neogloboquadrina dutertrei 5.0 50–200 55.3 22.3 22.3 23.8 ± 0.4 Prahl et al. (1988) Nakanishi et al. (2012a)
  MD98-2195 31° 38' N 128° 57' E 746 14C Globigerina bulloides 400 4.3 125 66.1 74.2 22.3 23.9 23.7 ± 0.5 20.1 ± 0.8 Prahl et al. (1988) Ijiri et al. (2005)
Neogloboquadrina dutertrei
Mg/Ca MD01-2403 25.3° N 123.2° E 1420 14C Globigerinoides spp. 400 5.0 ~70 85.4 27.5 27.6 28.0 ± 0.6 Hastings et al. (2001) Lin et al. (2006)
Orbulina universa
MD01-2404 26° 39' N 125° 49' E 1397 14C Globigerinoides ruber 400 6.0 68–373 53.6 52.4 27.1 26.9 27.1 ± 0.7 24.3 ± 0.7 Hastings et al. (2001) Chen et al. (2010)
Globigerinoides sacculifer
δ18O Uvigerina spp.
KH13-4-HR2MC 27° 40' N 127° 23' N 1675 Core-top sediment 26.8 26.7 Hastings et al. (2001) Horikawa et al. (2015)
A7 27° 49' N 126° 59' E 1264 14C Neogloboquadrina dutertrei 700 5.0 22–150 18.2 27.2 26.6 ± 0.6 Hastings et al. (2001) Sun et al. (2005)
KY07-04 PC-01 31° 38' N 128° 57' E 758 14C Neogloboquadrina dutertrei 5.0 50–200 55.3 102.0 24.9 24.9 25.9 ± 0.9 21.8 ± 1.1 FP-12E, SIMMAX28 Jian et al. (2000)
Foram. Assemb 255 25° 12' N 123° 07' E 1575 14C Neogloboquadrina dutertrei 185 59.4 - Aug. 28.9 (29.0/28.8)c (28.8 ± 0.3/28.8 ± 0.1)c FP-12E, SIMMAX28 Jian et al. (2000)
            Feb. 23.3 (24.3/24.3)c (24.3 ± 0.9/23.9 ± 1.2)c   
  MD01-2404 26° 39' N 125° 49' E 1397 14C Globigerinoides ruber 400 5.0 62–202 53.9 48.5 Aug. 28.9 28.6 28.6 ± 0.1 27.9 ± 0.6 RAM Chang et al. (2008)
Globigerinoides sacculifer
            Feb. 22.5 23.3 23.4 ± 0.8 22.5 ± 1.2   
  DGKS 9603 28°09' N 127° 16' E 1100 14C Globorotalia menardii 400 4.1 46–474 4.0 11.6 Aug. 29.0 27.7 28.5 ± 0.4 27.1 ± 0.4 MAT Li et al. (2001)
Globigerinoides sacculifer
Neogloboquadrina dutertrei
            Feb. 22.1 25.0 25.5 ± 0.4 24.0 ± 0.6   
  B-3GC 31° 29' N 128° 31' E 555 14C Neogloboquadrina dutertrei 130 10.3 Aug. 28.4 (27.9/28.1)c (28.4 ± 0.3/28.5 ± 0.4)c FP-12E, SIMMAX28 Jian et al. (2000)
            Feb. 17.7 (19.1/21.3)c (20.3 ± 1.0/22.6 ± 1.8)c   
  1. aTemperature data from the JODC datacenter (http://www.jodc.go.jp). Temperatures for the alkenone proxy are the annual mean temperatures at depths of 0–30 m; those for the Mg/Ca proxy are June–November mean temperatures at depths of 0–50 m; and those for the summer and winter assemblage-based temperatures are August and February temperatures at 0 m, respectively bForaminiferal assemblage cNumbers in parenthesis refer to assemblage-based temperatures reconstructed using FP-12E and SIMMAX-28, respectively