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Table 2 Major elemental composition of the major or potential tephras in Japan Sea sediments

From: Marine tephra in the Japan Sea sediments as a tool for paleoceanography and paleoclimatology

Tephra name Tephra code SiO2 TiO2 Al2O3 FeO* MnO MgO CaO Na2O K2O Ref. Remark
Baegdusan–Tomakomai tephra B-Tm 73.3 0.29 11.9 4.3 0.08 0.07 0.5 5.0 4.5 1  
 (Mode 1)   75.7 0.24 10.5 4.0 0.02 0.08 0.3 4.7 4.4 1 Bimodal
 (Mode 2)   68.4 0.40 14.7 4.5 0.14 0.12 1.3 5.5 5.1 1  
Kikai–Akahoya tephra K-Ah 75.0 0.53 13.0 2.5 0.07 0.50 2.0 3.6 2.8 1  
Ulleung-3c tephra U-3c 61.20 0.58 19.20 3.11 0.15 0.36 1.56 6.36 7.48 2  
Ulleung-Oki tephra U-Oki 61.6 0.44 20.1 2.9 0.2 0.3 1.5 6.7 6.3 1  
Daisen–Kusatanihara Pumice KsP or DMs 72.24 0.21 16.27 1.44 0.04 0.40 2.17 4.23 3.03 3  
Aira–Tanzawa tephra AT 78.4 0.13 12.2 1.2 0.04 0.14 1.1 3.3 3.4 1  
Ulleung–Yamato tephra U-Ym 57.79 0.57 19.53 3.87 0.24 0.90 4.05 6.99 6.05 4  
Baegdusan–Japan Basin tephra B-J 72.01 0.15 11.12 4.79 0.14 0.02 0.45 5.89 5.42 5  
San’in 1 tephra SAN1 76.68 0.16 12.67 0.93 0.43 0.22 1.34 3.19 4.39 5  
Ulleung–Sado-oki tephra U-Sado 59.19 0.19 19.95 3.73 0.23 0.41 1.33 9.22 5.74 5  
Baegdusan–Sado-oki tephra B-Sado 68.86 0.27 14.40 3.90 0.16 0.07 0.69 6.44 5.20 4  
Baegdusan–Yamato Basin tephra B-Ym 67.00 0.36 15.28 4.63 0.13 0.09 0.92 6.12 5.49 4  
Aso-4 tephra Aso-4 72.7 0.43 14.9 1.6 0.1 0.4 1.2 4.6 4.2 1  
 (Mode 1)   73.1 0.43 14.7 1.5 0.1 0.4 1.1 4.6 4.2 1 Bimodal
 (Mode 2)   72.3 0.44 15.0 1.7 0.1 0.5 1.5 4.6 3.8 1  
Toya tephra Toya 79.0 0.05 12.6 1.0 0.1 0.04 0.4 4.3 2.5 1  
Aso-3 tephra Aso-3 71.0 0.71 15.0 2.5 0.07 0.3 1.7 3.8 4.9 1  
Ata–Torihama tephra Ata-Th 78.4 0.1 12.4 1.0 0.1 0.2 1.2 3.4 3.3 1  
Aso-1 tephra Aso-1 65.2 0.6 14.8 3.2 0.1 0.6 2.0 3.1 4.8 1  
   0.6 15.1 4.0 0.1 0.6 2.1 3.2 4.3 1 *ICP
Baegdusan–Oga tephra B-Og 70.59 0.52 18.44 4.54 0.19 0.16 1.28 6.17 6.24 6  
Kobayashi–Kasamori tephra Kb-Ks 74.7 0.3 14.0 1.3 0.1 0.3 1.1 4.0 4.3 1  
   0.2 12.1 1.3 0.1 0.2 1.2 3.5 3.7 1 *ICP
Hakkoda 1 tephra (0.75 Ma; reference 9) HKd1 or Hkd-Ku 78.3 0.2 12.0 1.3 0.1 0.4 1.2 4.3 2.3 1  
Shishimuta–Azuki tephra (0.85 Ma; 9) Ss-Az 72.3 0.5 14.8 2.6 0.1 0.0 1.6 3.5 4.7 1  
Shishimuta–Pink tephra (1.05 Ma; 9) Ss-Pnk 0.2 12.4 1.3 0.1 0.2 1.2 3.1 4.0 1 *ICP
Omine tephra (1.65 Ma; 9) Omn 77.9 0.1 12.8 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.9 2.7 4.5 7  
   0.1 10.2 1.3 0.1 0.1 1.0 3.1 4.4 1 *ICP
Ebisutoge–Fukuda tephra (1.75 Ma; 9) Ebs-Fkd 76.8 0.1 13.1 1.5 0.1 0.0 0.9 2.9 4.4 7  
   0.1 9.8 1.7 0.1 0.1 1.0 3.2 4.4 1 *ICP
Znp-Ohta tephra (3.9 Ma; 9) Znp-Oht 0.03 12.26 1.18 0.08 0.01 0.59 3.30 4.46 8 *ICP
  1. References: 1, Machida and Arai (2003); 2, Shiihara et al. (2011); 3, Domitsu et al. (2002); 4, Lim et al. (2013); 5, Ikehara et a.l (2004); 6, Shirai et al. (1997); 7, Nagahashi et al. (2000); 8, Tamura et al. (2008); 9, Satoguchi and Nagahashi (2012). Total iron is shown as FeO*. Elemental composition analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method is shown as *ICP