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Table 1 Major Middle–Late Quaternary tephras in the Japan Sea sediments

From: Marine tephra in the Japan Sea sediments as a tool for paleoceanography and paleoclimatology

Tephra name Tephra code Source volcano Age (reference)
Baegdusan–Tomakomai tephra B-Tm Baegdusan volcano China/North Korea 10th century (1)
Kikai–Akahoya tephra K-Ah Kikai caldera South Kyushu, Japan 7,165–7,303 (2)
Ulleung–Oki tephra U-Oki Ulleung volcano Ulleung Island, Korea 10,177–10,225 (2)
Asama–Kusatsu Pumice As-K Asama volcano North Kanto, Japan 15–16.5 ka (1)
Daisen–Kusatanihara Pumice KsP or DMs Daisen volcano Chugoko, Japan 20–22 ka (1)
Baegdusan–Vladivostok-oki tephra B-V Baegdusan volcano China/North Korea 24.5 ka (3)
Aira–Tanzawa tephra AT Aira caldera South Kyushu, Japan 30,009 ± 189 (2)
Ulleung–Yamato tephra U-Ym Ulleung volcano Ulleung Island, Korea 38.2 ka (4)
Baegdusan–Japan Basin tephra B-J Baegdusan volcano Chian/North Korea 50.6 ka (4)
Ulleung–Sado-oki tephra U-Sado Ulleung volcano Ulleung Island, Korea 61.1 Ka (4)
Baegdusan–Sado-oki tephra B-Sado Baegdusan volcano China/North Korea 67.6 ka (4)
Baegdusan–Yamato Basin tephra B-Ym Baegdusan volcano China/North Korea 85.8 ka (4)
Aso-4 tephra Aso-4 Aso caldera Central Kyushu, Japan 85–90 Ka (1)
Toya tephra Toya Toya caldera Hokkaido, Japan 112–115 ka (1)
Aso-3 tephra Aso-3 Aso caldera Central Kyushu, Japan 133 ka (5)
Ata–Torihama tephra Ata-Th Ata caldera South Kyushu, Japan 240 ka (1)
Aso-1 tephra Aso-1 Aso caldera Central Kyushu, Japan 250–270 ka (1)
Baegdusan–Oga tephra B-Og Baegdusan volcano China/North Korea 448 ka (6)
Kobayashi–Kasamori tephra Kb-Ks Kobayashi caldera South Kyushu, Japan 520–530 ka (1)
  1. References 1, Machida and Arai (2003); 2, Smith et al. (2013); 3, Ikehara (2003); 4, Lim et al. (2013); 5, Chun et al. (2004); 6, Shirai et al. (1997)