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Table 1 Examples of time-sorted phenomena within the solar–terrestrial system

From: Advancing the understanding of the Sun–Earth interaction—the Climate and Weather of the Sun–Earth System (CAWSES) II program

Minutes to hours Days to weeks Months to years Decades to centuries
Solar flares Solar radiation Solar cycles Solar irradiance changes
CMEs (coronal mass ejections) Emerging flux features Solar dynamo Earth surface temperature
Geomagnetic storms Trapped particles Solar wind variance Ozone changes
Substorms Magnetic clouds Cosmic rays Galactic cosmic rays
Ionospheric currents and structure Geomagnetic storms Middle atmosphere dynamics, temperature, and composition Maunder minimum
Atmospheric gravity waves Radiation belt dynamics SAO (semi-annual oscillation) and QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) Climate change
Radiation belt enhancements